Multiple cardiovascular risk factors in Kenya: evidence from a health and demographic surveillance system using the WHO STEPwise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

OBJECTIVE: To describe the distribution of cardiovascular risk factors in western Kenya using a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). DESIGN: Population based survey of residents in an HDSS. SETTING: Webuye Division in Bungoma East District, Western Province of Kenya. PATIENTS: 4037 adults ≥ 18 years of age. INTERVENTIONS: Home based survey using the WHO STEPwise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-report of high blood pressure, high blood sugar, tobacco use, alcohol use, physical activity, and fruit/vegetable intake. RESULTS: The median age of the population was 35 years (IQR 26-50). Less than 6% of the population reported high blood pressure or blood sugar. Tobacco and alcohol use were reported in 7% and 16% of the population, respectively. The majority of the population (93%) was physically active. The average number of days per week that participants reported intake of fruits (3.1 ± 0.1) or vegetables (1.6 ± 0.1) was low. In multiple logistic regression analyses, women were more likely to report a history of high blood pressure (OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.9 to 3.9), less likely to report using tobacco (OR 0.08, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.11), less likely to report alcohol use (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.21) or eat ≥ 5 servings per day of fruits or vegetables (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.99) compared to men. CONCLUSIONS: The most common cardiovascular risk factors in peri-urban western Kenya are tobacco use, alcohol use, and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables. Our data reveal locally relevant subgroup differences that could inform future prevention efforts.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Bloomfield, GS; Mwangi, A; Chege, P; Simiyu, CJ; Aswa, DF; Odhiambo, D; Obala, AA; Ayuo, P; Khwa-Otsyula, BO

Published Date

  • September 2013

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 99 / 18

Start / End Page

  • 1323 - 1329

PubMed ID

  • 23872588

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC3898037

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1468-201X

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1136/heartjnl-2013-303913


  • eng

Conference Location

  • England