Intracardiac acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) and shear wave imaging in pigs with focal infarctions.
Four pigs, three with focal infarctions in the apical intraventricular septum (IVS) and/or left ventricular free wall (LVFW), were imaged with an intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) transducer. Custom beam sequences were used to excite the myocardium with focused acoustic radiation force (ARF) impulses and image the subsequent tissue response. Tissue displacement in response to the ARF excitation was calculated with a phase-based estimator, and transverse wave magnitude and velocity were each estimated at every depth. The excitation sequence was repeated rapidly, either in the same location to generate 40 Hz M-modes at a single steering angle, or with a modulated steering angle to synthesize 2-D displacement magnitude and shear wave velocity images at 17 points in the cardiac cycle. Both types of images were acquired from various views in the right and left ventricles, in and out of infarcted regions. In all animals, acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) and shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) estimates indicated diastolic relaxation and systolic contraction in noninfarcted tissues. The M-mode sequences showed high beat-to-beat spatio-temporal repeatability of the measurements for each imaging plane. In views of noninfarcted tissue in the diseased animals, no significant elastic remodeling was indicated when compared with the control. Where available, views of infarcted tissue were compared with similar views from the control animal. In views of the LVFW, the infarcted tissue presented as stiff and non-contractile compared with the control. In a view of the IVS, no significant difference was seen between infarcted and healthy tissue, whereas in another view, a heterogeneous infarction was seen to be presenting itself as non-contractile in systole.
Hollender, P; Bradway, D; Wolf, P; Goswami, R; Trahey, G
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