Psychiatric and cognitive aspects of primary hyperparathyroidism.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Clinical guidelines for the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism have been established by the 2002 NIH workshop on asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism. The panel called for further study of the ill-defined psychiatric and cognitive changes often seen in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. The present paper provides a rigorous, updated review of the most recent advances and studies that have measured health-related quality of life, neurocognitive and psychiatric changes, as well as neurophysiologic imaging in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism undergoing parathyroidectomy. RECENT FINDINGS: In studies conducted pre and postparathyroidectomy, six recent articles have described improvements in health-related quality of life. Five studies included evaluations with validated psychiatric and cognitive tests in prospective case-control trials, and showed varied improvements in depression, memory and concentration after parathyroidectomy. Two studies evaluated in a preliminary fashion the brains of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism with functional imaging studies, showing regional cerebral blood flow changes and prefrontal cortical activation with sleep improvement in postsurgical patients. SUMMARY: The studies described in this paper underline the benefits of surgical treatment on nontraditional symptoms in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, and open the door to the continued study of the endocrine effects of primary hyperparathyroidism on brain function.
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