Papillary thyroid cancer.
In summary, PTC is common, although it rarely results in disease-specific mortality. It is being diagnosed increasingly in the subclinical phase as a result of enhanced ultrasound imaging and more aggressive surveillance of smaller thyroid nodules. US-guided FNA is the "gold-standard" for diagnosis. Although controversy continues about the appropriate surgical management of PTC, total thyroidectomy is usually indicated given the frequent multicentricity and metastases of the disease, which in turn, necessitates adjuvant RAI and careful surveillance. An enhanced prognostic classification could better guide initial surgical therapy, standardize surveillance, and reduce the risk of recurrent and persistent disease. Research efforts should focus on the genetic and molecular underpinnings of PTC, as these would facilitate the identification of additional prognostic factors and potential targets for novel therapies.
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