Lipid adjustment for chemical exposures: accounting for concomitant variables.

Journal Article (Journal Article)


Some environmental chemical exposures are lipophilic and need to be adjusted by serum lipid levels before data analyses. There are currently various strategies that attempt to account for this problem, but all have their drawbacks. To address such concerns, we propose a new method that uses Box-Cox transformations and a simple Bayesian hierarchical model to adjust for lipophilic chemical exposures.


We compared our Box-Cox method to existing methods. We ran simulation studies in which increasing levels of lipid-adjusted chemical exposure did and did not increase the odds of having a disease, and we looked at both single-exposure and multiple-exposure cases. We also analyzed an epidemiology dataset that examined the effects of various chemical exposure on the risk of birth defects.


Compared with existing methods, our Box-Cox method produced unbiased estimates, good coverage, similar power, and lower type I error rates. This was the case in both single- and multiple-exposure simulation studies. Results from analysis of the birth-defect data differed from results using existing methods.


Our Box-Cox method is a novel and intuitive way to account for the lipophilic nature of certain chemical exposures. It addresses some of the problems with existing methods, is easily extendable to multiple exposures, and can be used in any analysis that involves concomitant variables.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Li, D; Longnecker, MP; Dunson, DB

Published Date

  • November 2013

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 24 / 6

Start / End Page

  • 921 - 928

PubMed ID

  • 24051893

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC3812826

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1531-5487

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1044-3983

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1097/ede.0b013e3182a671e4


  • eng