Emulsion stabilization and flocculation in CO2. 1. Turbidimetry and tensiometry
The stabilization and flocculation of emulsions of poly(2-ethylhexyl acrylate) (PEHA) in liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) with the homopolymer poly(1,1-dihydroperfluorooctyl acrylate) (PFOA), the diblock copolymer polystyrene-b-PFOA, and the triblock copolymer PFOA-6-poly-(vinyl acetate)-b-PFOA were quantified by turbidimetry and measurements of interfacial tension. Upon decreasing the CO2density, a distinct change in emulsion stability occurs at the critical flocculation density (CFD). Steric stabilization by the homopolymer PFOA is due to a small number of adsorbed segments and a large number of segments in loops and tails as determined by measurements of the PEHA-CO2interfacial tension. Below the CFD, flocculation is irreversible due to bridging by the high molecular weight PFOA chains. PS-b-PFOA adsorbs much more strongly to the PEHA-CO2interface than the other two stabilizers. Consequently, it provides the greatest resistance to emulsion flocculation, both above and below the CFD, and the most reversible flocculation. For all stabilizers studied, the CFD correlates very well with the estimated Θ point for PFOA in bulk CO2.
O'Neill, ML; Yates, MZ; Harrison, KL; Johnston, KP; Canelas, DA; Betts, DE; DeSimone, JM; Wilkinson, SP
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