Perioperative blood pressure control: a prospective survey of patient management in cardiac surgery.
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a survey of current cardiac anesthetic practice in Europe and the United States, as a first step toward establishing guidelines for the management of perioperative hypertension. DESIGN: Prospective, multicenter study. SETTING: University hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: Unselected patients (n = 1,930) requiring cardiac surgery. INTERVENTIONS: Data extending from the preoperative evaluation to 120 hours or more after surgery were collected from all patients. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Only the data from patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery, valve surgery, or combined procedures were analyzed, leaving a final total of 1,660 patients from the original 1,930. Of these, 88% were treated at least once perioperatively to lower arterial blood pressure. Deepening of anesthesia was the most commonly used antihypertensive measure (68%), regardless of the ongoing anesthetic regimen, and was usually combined with vasodilator therapy, most frequently nitroglycerin (53%) or sodium nitroprusside (28%). Reported perioperative mean arterial pressure (MAP) was 15 to 20 mmHg lower than MAP before anesthesia induction, regardless of the use of antihypertensive therapy. The MAP at which antihypertensive treatment was initiated varied markedly among the various phases of surgery and showed no clear correlation with preoperative MAP. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this survey show that current anesthetic practice tries to prevent perioperative hypertension wherever possible during cardiac surgery. Blood pressure measurements taken before surgery have little influence on the development of hypertension intraoperatively, and the main determinants of perioperative blood pressure control and the need for therapeutic intervention are factors arising from the surgical procedure itself, such as aortic cross-clamping and activation of adrenergic mechanisms.
Vuylsteke, A; Feneck, RO; Jolin-Mellgård, A; Latimer, RD; Levy, JH; Lynch, C; Nordlander, ML; Nyström, P; Ricksten, SE
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