Hematologic and economic impact of aprotinin in reoperative pediatric cardiac operations.
BACKGROUND: Aprotinin consistently reduces blood loss and transfusion requirements in adults during and after cardiac surgical procedures, but its effectiveness in children is debated. We evaluated the hemostatic and economic effects of aprotinin in children undergoing reoperative cardiac procedures with cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS: Control, low-dose aprotinin, and high-dose aprotinin groups were established with 15 children per group. Platelet counts, fibrinogen levels, and thromboelastographic values at baseline and after protamine sulfate administration, number of blood product transfusions, and 6-hour and 24-hour chest tube drainage were used to evaluate the effects of aprotinin on postbypass coagulopathies. Time needed for skin closure after protamine administration and lengths of stay in the intensive care unit and the hospital were recorded prospectively to determine the economic impact of aprotinin. RESULTS: Coagulation tests performed after protamine administration rarely demonstrated fibrinolysis but did show significant decreases in platelet and fibrinogen levels and function. The thromboelastographic variables indicated a preservation of platelet function by aprotinin. Decreased blood product transfusions, shortened skin closure times, and shortened durations of intensive care unit and hospital stays were found in the aprotinin groups, most significantly in the high-dose group with a subsequent average reduction of nearly $3,000 in patient charges. CONCLUSIONS: In children undergoing reoperative cardiac surgical procedures, aprotinin is effective in attenuating postbypass coagulopathies, decreasing blood product exposure, improving clinical outcome, and reducing patient charges.
Miller, BE; Tosone, SR; Tam, VK; Kanter, KR; Guzzetta, NA; Bailey, JM; Levy, JH
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