Psychiatric nursing outcome research: the state of the science.
A review of the nursing literature from 1989 to 1994 indicates that few psychiatric nursing studies are published in the major nursing research journals. The psychiatric specialization literature includes a large number of studies that are classified as either outcome studies or could serve as building blocks for future outcome studies. Few studies build on prior research, resulting in a weak scientific basis for evaluating the outcomes of psychiatric nursing care. Strategies for increasing the quantity and quality of psychiatric nursing outcome research are presented.
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