Centuries of human-driven change in salt marsh ecosystems.

Journal Article (Review;Journal Article)

Salt marshes are among the most abundant, fertile, and accessible coastal habitats on earth, and they provide more ecosystem services to coastal populations than any other environment. Since the Middle Ages, humans have manipulated salt marshes at a grand scale, altering species composition, distribution, and ecosystem function. Here, we review historic and contemporary human activities in marsh ecosystems--exploitation of plant products; conversion to farmland, salt works, and urban land; introduction of non-native species; alteration of coastal hydrology; and metal and nutrient pollution. Unexpectedly, diverse types of impacts can have a similar consequence, turning salt marsh food webs upside down, dramatically increasing top down control. Of the various impacts, invasive species, runaway consumer effects, and sea level rise represent the greatest threats to salt marsh ecosystems. We conclude that the best way to protect salt marshes and the services they provide is through the integrated approach of ecosystem-based management.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Gedan, KB; Silliman, BR; Bertness, MD

Published Date

  • January 2009

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 1 /

Start / End Page

  • 117 - 141

PubMed ID

  • 21141032

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1941-0611

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1941-1405

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1146/annurev.marine.010908.163930


  • eng