The GLI1 splice variant TGLI1 promotes glioblastoma angiogenesis and growth.
We investigated truncated glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 (TGLI1) that behaves as gain-of-function GLI1 and promotes tumor cell migration and invasion. Herein, we report that TGLI1 had a higher propensity than GLI1 to enhance glioblastoma angiogenesis and growth, both in vivo and in vitro. TGLI1 has gained the ability to enhance expression of pro-angiogenic heparanase. In patient glioblastomas, TGLI1 levels are correlated with heparanase expression. Together, we report that TGLI1 is a novel mediator of glioblastoma angiogenesis and that heparanase is a novel transcriptional target of TGLI1, shedding new light on the molecular pathways that support tumor angiogenesis and aggressive growth.
Zhu, H; Carpenter, RL; Han, W; Lo, H-W
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