Effects of reduced left ventricular mass on chamber architecture, load, and function: a study of anorexia nervosa.
We investigated the effects of reduction in left ventricular mass on cavity geometry, afterload, pump function, and exercise performance in 17 patients with anorexia nervosa and in 10 age-and sex-matched normal subjects. Left ventricular mass index determined by two-dimensional echo-cardiography was significantly lower than that in normal subjects (53 +/- 15 vs 79 +/- 18 g/m2; p less than .005). Left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volume indexes were also reduced in patients with anorexia nervosa compared with normal subjects (49 +/- 11 vs 65 +/- 17 ml/m2, p less than .005; 14 +/- 5 vs 19 +/- 4 ml/m2, p less than .025). In spite of the reductions in left ventricular mass and volume indexes, left ventricular chamber architecture described as h/R ratio, mass to volume ratio, and short/long left ventricular axis ratio were normal. Left ventricular afterload assessed as end-systolic meridional and circumferential wall stress was normal (59 +/- 18 vs 79 +/- 19 dyne/cm2 X 10(3) and 170 +/- 26 vs 167 +/- 23 dyne/cm2 X 10(3)). Ejection fraction, percent fractional shortening, and the relationship between end-systolic wall stress and ejection fraction were all within normal limits. In seven patients restudied after a 15% to 20% weight gain, left ventricular mass and volume indexes increased significantly but end-systolic wall stress and ejection fraction did not change. Ten patients with anorexia nervosa and resting heart rates and systolic blood pressures significantly lower than control values underwent treadmill testing. Exercise duration, peak heart rate, peak systolic blood pressure, and peak oxygen consumption in these patients were all significantly lower than normal. The hypotensive effect of fasting resulted in an initial decrease in afterload, which was the stimulus for reduction in left ventricular mass. The left ventricular remodeling associated with the mass reduction occurred in such a way that (1) orthogonal, meridional, and circumferential wall stresses were normalized, (2) normal chamber shape and architecture were maintained, and (3) chamber function and stress-shortening relationships were preserved. Thus down-regulation of left ventricular mass per se, like up-regulation of left ventricular mass, is not associated with abnormal left ventricular function.
St John Sutton, MG; Plappert, T; Crosby, L; Douglas, P; Mullen, J; Reichek, N
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