Smoking and Stress
A two-factor model of smoking accounts for the relation between smoking and stress: (1) smokers with stress-related personality and psychopathological traits smoke in order to alleviate stressful cognitive and affective states and (2) smoking alleviates withdrawal-induced stress. We review the genetic, psychological, and biological bases for this relation. © 2007 Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McClernon, FJ; Gilbert, DG
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