Histogenesis in Three-dimensional Scaffolds
The need for replacement tissues and organs is influencing tissue engineers to develop materials and strategies capable of generating biologically functional substitutes. Researchers seek to develop a scaffold material that can support viability of the appropriate cell type while acting as a temporary substitute for the extracellular matrix. Over time this surrogate matrix will ideally be replaced by functional replacement tissue. A variety of cell types are investigated for regeneration applications including differentiated cells, adult-derived stem cells, and embryonic stem cells. There are three types of mature cells: autologous, allogeneic, and xenogeniec. Allogeneic cells are harvested from healthy adult donor organs and then expanded in vitro. Scaffolds with allogeneic cells are subject to immune rejection but these cells are successful in skin regeneration for burn patients. Autologous cells biopsied from a patient, expanded in vitro, and then seeded onto a tissue scaffold prior to re-implantation into the same individual are generally viewed as the ideal replacement in terms of compatibility. In most types of synthetic materials, successful histogenesis requires a porous microstructure. Scaffold porosity, pore size, and the overall pore structure all have important effects upon tissue formation and infiltration into biomaterial constructs. Interconnecting pores facilitate the loading of cells into scaffold materials while the increased internal surface area provides sites for attachment and spreading. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McHale, MK; Bergmann, NM; West, JL
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