Model cell membranes: Techniques to form complex biomimetic supported lipid bilayers via vesicle fusion
Vesicle fusion has long provided an easy and reliable method to form supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) from simple, zwitterionic vesicles on siliceous substrates. However, for complex compositions, such as vesicles with high cholesterol content and multiple lipid types, the energy barrier for the vesicle-to-bilayer transition is increased or the required vesicle-vesicle and vesicle-substrate interactions are insufficient for vesicle fusion. Thus, for vesicle compositions that more accurately mimic native membranes, vesicle fusion often fails to form SLBs. In this paper, we review three approaches to overcome these barriers to form complex, biomimetic SLBs via vesicle fusion: (i) optimization of experimental conditions (e.g., temperature, buffer ionic strength, osmotic stress, cation valency, and buffer pH), (ii) α-helical (AH) peptide-induced vesicle fusion, and (iii) bilayer edge-induced vesicle fusion. AH peptide-induced vesicle fusion can form complex SLBs on multiple substrate types without the use of additional equipment. Bilayer edge-induced vesicle fusion uses microfluidics to form SLBs from vesicles with complex composition, including vesicles derived from native cell membranes. Collectively, this review introduces vesicle fusion techniques that can be generalized for many biomimetic vesicle compositions and many substrate types, and thus will aid efforts to reliably create complex SLB platforms on a range of substrates. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Hardy, GJ; Nayak, R; Zauscher, S
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)