The double allopolyploid Sphagnum × falcatulum (Sphagnaceae) in Tierra del Fuego, a Holantarctic perspective
A Holantarctic species, the inter-subgeneric allopolyploid Sphagnum ×falcatulum s.l. is a cryptic species complex composed of allodiploid and allotriploid cytotypes. The allotriploid plants are double allopolyploids (one of just two reported for bryophytes), with the allodiploid cytotype being one parent. Using a combination of microsatellites, nucleotide sequences, and morphological characters, allotriploid S. ×falcatulum is shown to be the most widespread Sphagnum species in the Holantarctic, with genetically documented populations in South America (Tierra del Fuego), New Zealand (South Island), and Australia (Macquarie Island, Tasmania). It is further concluded that six Sphagnum species described from the Tierra del Fuego Archipelago (TDF) of South America and a seventh described from South Island, New Zealand are synonymous with the allotriploid cytotype of S. ×falcatulum. The synonymized species include five named by Heikki Roivainen in 1937, S. ×ehyalinum, and S. subditivum. Allotriploid S. ×falcatulum is the predominant, perhaps the only, subgenus Cuspidata species present in TDF and immediate vicinity. The combination of low genetic diversity and an apparent absence of sexual reproduction indicate that the TDF population of the dioicous allotriploid S. ×falcatulum was likely founded by one or a limited number of individuals. The same is apparently the case for Macquarie I. and Tasmanian populations of allotriploid S. ×falcatulum. Several lines of evidence, including high genetic diversity, frequent sporophyte production, and the occurrence of the allodiploid parent, suggest that allotriploid S. ×falcatulum likely evolved in New Zealand. © British Bryological Society 2013.
Karlin, EF; Buck, WR; Seppelt, RD; Boles, SB; Shaw, AJ
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)