Practitioner attributes as predictors of restrictive practices in assertive community treatment.
BACKGROUND: Practitioners variably use restrictive practices with assertive community treatment (ACT) consumers. Little is known about practitioner attributes, such as pessimistic attitudes and lack of advanced education, which may predict greater use of restrictive practices. OBJECTIVES: To describe the frequency of restrictive practices in ACT and examine the relationship between practitioner attributes, particularly pessimistic attitudes and education, and the frequency with which restrictive practices are reportedly used in daily treatment of adults with severe mental illness. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study of 122 ACT practitioners in one state. RESULTS: More restrictive practices were rarely reported by practitioners. Pessimistic attitudes and lack of graduate-level training were associated with self-reported higher use of restrictive practices, even when controlling for select consumer caseload variables and ACT program fidelity. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates the need to identify practitioner-related factors that may contribute to the high use of restrictive practices, and develop and implement relevant staff training.
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