Spectrin- and ankyrin-based membrane domains and the evolution of vertebrates.
Spectrin and ankyrin are membrane skeletal proteins that contribute to mechanical support of plasma membranes and micron-scale organization of diverse membrane-spanning proteins. This chapter provides a plausible scenario for the evolution of ankyrin- and spectrin-based membrane domains with a focus on vertebrates. The analysis integrates recent phylogenetic information with functional analyses of spectrin and ankyrin in erythrocytes, axon initial segments and nodes of Ranvier in neurons, T-tubules and intercalated disks of cardiomyocytes, lateral membrane domains of epithelial cells, and costameres of striated muscle. A core spectrin-ankyrin mechanism for coordinating membrane-spanning proteins and mechanically stabilizing membrane bilayers was expanded in vertebrates by gene duplication events, insertion of giant alternately spliced exons of axonal ankyrins, and a versatile peptide-binding fold of ANK repeats that facilitated acquisition of new protein partners. Cell adhesion molecules (CAM), including dystroglycan, L1 CAM family members, and cadherins, are the earliest examples of membrane-spanning proteins with ankyrin-binding motifs and were all present in urochordates. In contrast, ion channels have continued to evolve ankyrin-binding sites in vertebrates. These considerations suggest a model where proto-domains formed through interaction of ankyrin and spectrin with CAMs. These proto-domains then became populated with ion channels that developed ankyrin-binding activity with selective pressure provided by optimization of physiological function. The best example is the axon initial segment where ankyrin-binding activity evolved sequentially and independently first in L1 CAMs, then in voltage-gated sodium channels, and finally in KCNQ2/3 channels, with the selective advantage of fast and precisely regulated signaling.
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