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Paul Seli

Assistant Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience
Psychology & Neuroscience
417 Chapel Drive, 205 Reuben-Cooke Building, Durham, NC 27708

Selected Publications


Harnessing dehumanization theory, modern media, and an intervention tournament to reduce support for retributive war crimes

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Social Psychology · March 1, 2024 We demonstrate how psychological scientists can curate rich-yet-accessible media to intervene on conflict-escalating attitudes during the earliest stages of violent conflicts. Although wartime atrocities all-too-often ignite destructive cycles of tit-for-t ... Full text Cite

Transitions from child and adolescent to adult mental health services for eating disorders: an in-depth systematic review and development of a transition framework.

Journal Article Journal of eating disorders · March 2024 BackgroundEating disorders (EDs) peak in mid-to-late adolescence and often persist into adulthood. Given their early onset and chronicity, many patients transition from child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) to adult mental health ser ... Full text Cite

A family-resemblances framework for dehumanization research

Journal Article Current Research in Ecological and Social Psychology · January 1, 2024 Dehumanization has figured prominently in intergroup discrimination and violence, which has inspired sustained social-psychological inquiry. Over two decades, researchers have brought an abundance of theories and methods to bear on the empirical study of d ... Full text Cite

Keeping the promise: a critique of the current state of microdosing research.

Journal Article Frontiers in psychiatry · January 2024 IntroductionThe practice of taking small, sub-hallucinogenic doses of psychedelics, known as microdosing, has exploded in popularity over the last decade. Users claim benefits ranging from improved mood and enhanced creativity to an increased sens ... Full text Cite

Associations Between Autobiographical Memory and Dreaming: An Individual-Differences Approach

Journal Article Dreaming · January 1, 2024 Autobiographical memory and dreaming are ubiquitous in everyday life. The study of their relation has largely been assessed using experimental approaches, abstracting from individual differences, despite evidence of stable individual differences in both me ... Full text Cite

Humans versus AI: whether and why we prefer human-created compared to AI-created artwork.

Journal Article Cognitive research: principles and implications · July 2023 With the recent proliferation of advanced artificial intelligence (AI) models capable of mimicking human artworks, AI creations might soon replace products of human creativity, although skeptics argue that this outcome is unlikely. One possible reason this ... Full text Cite

Reducing Explicit Blatant Dehumanization by Correcting Exaggerated Meta-Perceptions

Journal Article Social Psychological and Personality Science · May 1, 2023 If explicitly, blatantly dehumanizing a group of people—overtly characterizing them as less than human—facilitates harming them, then reversing this process is paramount. Addressing dehumanization among American political partisans appears especially cruci ... Full text Cite

Registered clinical trials investigating ketamine and esketamine for treatment-resistant depression: A systematic review

Journal Article Journal of Psychedelic Studies · January 16, 2023 Background and Aims: Ketamine and esketamine have garnered interest in both psychiatric research and clinical practice for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). In this review, we examined registered trials investigating the therapeutic use of ketamine or ... Full text Cite

Mind Wandering, Motivation, and Task Performance Over Time: Evidence That Motivation Insulates People From the Negative Effects of Mind Wandering

Journal Article Psychology of Consciousness: Theory Research, and Practice · January 1, 2023 In the current study, we examined whether participant motivation was associated with fluctuations of attentional engagement and performance over time. We gauged participants’ motivation and depth of mind wandering as they completed the metronome response t ... Full text Cite

Under pressure: Locomotion and assessment in the COVID-19 pandemic

Journal Article Self and Identity · January 1, 2023 The COVID-19 pandemic poses unique opportunities to explore how fundamental self-regulatory variables affect responses to the pandemic. We examine how two critical self-regulatory orientations, locomotion and assessment, relate to psychological distress an ... Full text Cite

Examining the relation between mind wandering and unhealthy eating behaviours

Journal Article Personality and Individual Differences · January 1, 2023 In the present study, we explored how individual differences in the tendency to mind-wander are related to unhealthy eating behaviours (i.e., eating habits and eating-disorder symptoms). Given that eating-disorders are associated with inhibition (extreme c ... Full text Cite

Cannabis-assisted psychotherapy for complex dissociative posttraumatic stress disorder: A case report.

Journal Article Frontiers in psychiatry · January 2023 BackgroundA dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder, known as "D-PTSD", has been included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. In addition to meeting criteria for PTSD, patients endorse promine ... Full text Cite

Back to the basics: Abstract painting as an index of creativity

Journal Article Creativity Research Journal · January 1, 2023 Researchers have invested a great deal in creating reliable, “gold-standard” creativity assessments that can be administered in controlled laboratory settings, though these efforts have come at the cost of not using ecologically and face-valid tasks. To he ... Full text Cite

5-MeO-DMT for post-traumatic stress disorder: a real-world longitudinal case study.

Journal Article Frontiers in psychiatry · January 2023 Psychedelic therapy is, arguably, the next frontier in psychiatry. It offers a radical alternative to longstanding, mainstays of treatment, while exciting a paradigm shift in translational science and drug discovery. There is particular interest in 5-metho ... Full text Cite

Prior exposure increases judged truth even during periods of mind wandering.

Journal Article Psychonomic bulletin & review · October 2022 Much of our day is spent mind-wandering-periods of inattention characterized by a lack of awareness of external stimuli and information. Whether we are paying attention or not, information surrounds us constantly-some true and some false. The proliferation ... Full text Cite

Fixation, flexibility, and creativity: The dynamics of mind wandering.

Journal Article Journal of experimental psychology. Human perception and performance · July 2022 The mind-wandering literature is long on results and short on theory. One notable exception is the Dynamic Framework, a theoretical framework that characterizes mind wandering as thoughts that are relatively unconstrained from deliberate and automat ... Full text Cite

On the relation between mind wandering, PTSD symptomology, and self-control.

Journal Article Consciousness and cognition · March 2022 Here we examined the association between mind wandering, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomology, and self-control. In a large undergraduate sample (N = 5,387), we assessed trait-levels of spontaneous and deliberate mind wandering, self-control, ... Full text Cite

Creativity, Boredom Proneness and Well-Being in the Pandemic.

Journal Article Behavioral sciences (Basel, Switzerland) · March 2022 Throughout the course of the pandemic, it has become clear that the strictures of social isolation and various levels of lockdown constraints have impacted people's well-being. Here, our aim was to explore relations between trait dispositions associated wi ... Full text Cite

Ketamine as a Novel Psychopharmacotherapy for Eating Disorders: Evidence and Future Directions.

Journal Article Brain sciences · March 2022 Eating disorders (EDs) are serious, life-threatening psychiatric conditions associated with physical and psychosocial impairment, as well as high morbidity and mortality. Given the chronic refractory nature of EDs and the paucity of evidence-based treatmen ... Full text Cite

Re-examining the effect of motivation on intentional and unintentional task-unrelated thought: accounting for thought constraint produces novel results.

Journal Article Psychological research · February 2022 It has been proposed that motivating participants to perform well on a cognitive task ought to lead to decreases in rates of intentional, but not unintentional, task-unrelated thought (TUT; a commonly studied variety of mind wandering). However, at odds wi ... Full text Cite

Harnessing dehumanization theory, modern media, and an intervention tournament to reduce support for retributive war crimes

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Social Psychology · March 1, 2024 We demonstrate how psychological scientists can curate rich-yet-accessible media to intervene on conflict-escalating attitudes during the earliest stages of violent conflicts. Although wartime atrocities all-too-often ignite destructive cycles of tit-for-t ... Full text Cite

Transitions from child and adolescent to adult mental health services for eating disorders: an in-depth systematic review and development of a transition framework.

Journal Article Journal of eating disorders · March 2024 BackgroundEating disorders (EDs) peak in mid-to-late adolescence and often persist into adulthood. Given their early onset and chronicity, many patients transition from child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) to adult mental health ser ... Full text Cite

A family-resemblances framework for dehumanization research

Journal Article Current Research in Ecological and Social Psychology · January 1, 2024 Dehumanization has figured prominently in intergroup discrimination and violence, which has inspired sustained social-psychological inquiry. Over two decades, researchers have brought an abundance of theories and methods to bear on the empirical study of d ... Full text Cite

Keeping the promise: a critique of the current state of microdosing research.

Journal Article Frontiers in psychiatry · January 2024 IntroductionThe practice of taking small, sub-hallucinogenic doses of psychedelics, known as microdosing, has exploded in popularity over the last decade. Users claim benefits ranging from improved mood and enhanced creativity to an increased sens ... Full text Cite

Associations Between Autobiographical Memory and Dreaming: An Individual-Differences Approach

Journal Article Dreaming · January 1, 2024 Autobiographical memory and dreaming are ubiquitous in everyday life. The study of their relation has largely been assessed using experimental approaches, abstracting from individual differences, despite evidence of stable individual differences in both me ... Full text Cite

Humans versus AI: whether and why we prefer human-created compared to AI-created artwork.

Journal Article Cognitive research: principles and implications · July 2023 With the recent proliferation of advanced artificial intelligence (AI) models capable of mimicking human artworks, AI creations might soon replace products of human creativity, although skeptics argue that this outcome is unlikely. One possible reason this ... Full text Cite

Reducing Explicit Blatant Dehumanization by Correcting Exaggerated Meta-Perceptions

Journal Article Social Psychological and Personality Science · May 1, 2023 If explicitly, blatantly dehumanizing a group of people—overtly characterizing them as less than human—facilitates harming them, then reversing this process is paramount. Addressing dehumanization among American political partisans appears especially cruci ... Full text Cite

Registered clinical trials investigating ketamine and esketamine for treatment-resistant depression: A systematic review

Journal Article Journal of Psychedelic Studies · January 16, 2023 Background and Aims: Ketamine and esketamine have garnered interest in both psychiatric research and clinical practice for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). In this review, we examined registered trials investigating the therapeutic use of ketamine or ... Full text Cite

Mind Wandering, Motivation, and Task Performance Over Time: Evidence That Motivation Insulates People From the Negative Effects of Mind Wandering

Journal Article Psychology of Consciousness: Theory Research, and Practice · January 1, 2023 In the current study, we examined whether participant motivation was associated with fluctuations of attentional engagement and performance over time. We gauged participants’ motivation and depth of mind wandering as they completed the metronome response t ... Full text Cite

Under pressure: Locomotion and assessment in the COVID-19 pandemic

Journal Article Self and Identity · January 1, 2023 The COVID-19 pandemic poses unique opportunities to explore how fundamental self-regulatory variables affect responses to the pandemic. We examine how two critical self-regulatory orientations, locomotion and assessment, relate to psychological distress an ... Full text Cite

Examining the relation between mind wandering and unhealthy eating behaviours

Journal Article Personality and Individual Differences · January 1, 2023 In the present study, we explored how individual differences in the tendency to mind-wander are related to unhealthy eating behaviours (i.e., eating habits and eating-disorder symptoms). Given that eating-disorders are associated with inhibition (extreme c ... Full text Cite

Cannabis-assisted psychotherapy for complex dissociative posttraumatic stress disorder: A case report.

Journal Article Frontiers in psychiatry · January 2023 BackgroundA dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder, known as "D-PTSD", has been included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. In addition to meeting criteria for PTSD, patients endorse promine ... Full text Cite

Back to the basics: Abstract painting as an index of creativity

Journal Article Creativity Research Journal · January 1, 2023 Researchers have invested a great deal in creating reliable, “gold-standard” creativity assessments that can be administered in controlled laboratory settings, though these efforts have come at the cost of not using ecologically and face-valid tasks. To he ... Full text Cite

5-MeO-DMT for post-traumatic stress disorder: a real-world longitudinal case study.

Journal Article Frontiers in psychiatry · January 2023 Psychedelic therapy is, arguably, the next frontier in psychiatry. It offers a radical alternative to longstanding, mainstays of treatment, while exciting a paradigm shift in translational science and drug discovery. There is particular interest in 5-metho ... Full text Cite

Prior exposure increases judged truth even during periods of mind wandering.

Journal Article Psychonomic bulletin & review · October 2022 Much of our day is spent mind-wandering-periods of inattention characterized by a lack of awareness of external stimuli and information. Whether we are paying attention or not, information surrounds us constantly-some true and some false. The proliferation ... Full text Cite

Fixation, flexibility, and creativity: The dynamics of mind wandering.

Journal Article Journal of experimental psychology. Human perception and performance · July 2022 The mind-wandering literature is long on results and short on theory. One notable exception is the Dynamic Framework, a theoretical framework that characterizes mind wandering as thoughts that are relatively unconstrained from deliberate and automat ... Full text Cite

On the relation between mind wandering, PTSD symptomology, and self-control.

Journal Article Consciousness and cognition · March 2022 Here we examined the association between mind wandering, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomology, and self-control. In a large undergraduate sample (N = 5,387), we assessed trait-levels of spontaneous and deliberate mind wandering, self-control, ... Full text Cite

Creativity, Boredom Proneness and Well-Being in the Pandemic.

Journal Article Behavioral sciences (Basel, Switzerland) · March 2022 Throughout the course of the pandemic, it has become clear that the strictures of social isolation and various levels of lockdown constraints have impacted people's well-being. Here, our aim was to explore relations between trait dispositions associated wi ... Full text Cite

Ketamine as a Novel Psychopharmacotherapy for Eating Disorders: Evidence and Future Directions.

Journal Article Brain sciences · March 2022 Eating disorders (EDs) are serious, life-threatening psychiatric conditions associated with physical and psychosocial impairment, as well as high morbidity and mortality. Given the chronic refractory nature of EDs and the paucity of evidence-based treatmen ... Full text Cite

Re-examining the effect of motivation on intentional and unintentional task-unrelated thought: accounting for thought constraint produces novel results.

Journal Article Psychological research · February 2022 It has been proposed that motivating participants to perform well on a cognitive task ought to lead to decreases in rates of intentional, but not unintentional, task-unrelated thought (TUT; a commonly studied variety of mind wandering). However, at odds wi ... Full text Cite

Dual-Modes of Creative Thought in the Classroom: Implications of Network Neuroscience for Creativity Education

Journal Article Translational Issues in Psychological Science · January 1, 2022 Students experience varying engagement levels and modes of thought in educational contexts, and educators have substantial influence on those attributes of student engagement. When designing lessons, educators typically utilize Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educatio ... Full text Cite

Dissociating the freely-moving thought dimension of mind-wandering from the intentionality and task-unrelated thought dimensions.

Journal Article Psychological research · October 2021 The recently forwarded family-resemblances framework of mind-wandering argues that mind-wandering is a multidimensional construct consisting of a variety of exemplars. On this view, membership in the mind-wandering family is graded along various dimensions ... Full text Cite

Mind wandering at encoding, but not at retrieval, disrupts one-shot stimulus-control learning.

Journal Article Attention, perception & psychophysics · October 2021 The one-shot pairing of a stimulus with a specific cognitive control process, such as task switching, can bind the two together in memory. The episodic control-binding hypothesis posits that the formation of temporary stimulus-control bindings, which are h ... Full text Cite

What are the benefits of mind wandering to creativity?

Journal Article Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts · September 16, 2021 Full text Cite

Thought dynamics under task demands: Evaluating the influence of task difficulty on unconstrained thought.

Journal Article Journal of experimental psychology. Human perception and performance · September 2021 As research on mind wandering has accelerated, the construct's defining features have expanded and researchers have begun to examine different dimensions of mind wandering. Recently, Christoff and colleagues have argued for the importance of investigating ... Full text Cite

Mind-Wandering Across the Age Gap: Age-Related Differences in Mind-Wandering Are Partially Attributable to Age-Related Differences in Motivation.

Journal Article The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences · August 2021 ObjectivesA common finding in the mind-wandering literature is that older adults (OAs) tend to mind-wander less frequently than young adults (YAs). Here, we sought to determine whether this age-related difference in mind-wandering is attributable ... Full text Cite

Intelligence and creativity share a common cognitive and neural basis.

Journal Article Journal of experimental psychology. General · April 2021 Are intelligence and creativity distinct abilities, or do they rely on the same cognitive and neural systems? We sought to quantify the extent to which intelligence and creative cognition overlap in brain and behavior by combining machine learning of fMRI ... Full text Cite

Attention need not always apply: Mind wandering impedes explicit but not implicit sequence learning.

Journal Article Cognition · April 2021 According to the attentional resources account, mind wandering (or "task-unrelated thought") is thought to compete with a focal task for attentional resources. Here, we tested two key predictions of this account: First, that mind wandering should not inter ... Full text Cite

Boredom in the COVID-19 pandemic: Trait boredom proneness, the desire to act, and rule-breaking.

Journal Article Personality and individual differences · March 2021 The state of boredom presents a conundrum: When bored, we want to engage with an activity, but we don't want to engage with whatever is currently available. This conflict is exacerbated when external factors impose restrictions on the range of behaviors we ... Full text Cite

The neural correlates of ongoing conscious thought.

Journal Article iScience · March 2021 A core goal in cognitive neuroscience is identifying the physical substrates of the patterns of thought that occupy our daily lives. Contemporary views suggest that the landscape of ongoing experience is heterogeneous and can be influenced by features of b ... Full text Cite

The relation between task-unrelated media multitasking and task-related motivation.

Journal Article Psychological research · February 2021 In two experiments, we explored the relation between participants' (a) levels of motivation to complete a task and (b) task-unrelated media multitasking. In Experiment 1, we examined the extent to which participants' levels of motivation to complete a task ... Full text Cite

Comparing the phenomenological qualities of stimulus-independent thought, stimulus-dependent thought and dreams using experience sampling.

Journal Article Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences · February 2021 Humans spend a considerable portion of their lives engaged in 'stimulus-independent thoughts' (SIT), or mental activity that occurs independently of input from the immediate external environment. Although such SITs are, by definition, different from though ... Full text Cite

TL;DR: Longer Sections of Text Increase Rates of Unintentional Mind-Wandering

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Education · January 1, 2021 The prevalence of the acronym tl;dr (“too long; didn’t read”) suggests that people intentionally disengage their attention from long sections of text. We studied this real-world phenomenon in an educational context by measuring rates of intentional and uni ... Full text Cite

Analytic-thinking predicts hoax beliefs and helping behaviors in response to the COVID-19 pandemic

Journal Article Thinking and Reasoning · January 1, 2021 The COVID-19 outbreak was labeled a global pandemic by the WHO in March of 2020. During that same month, the number of confirmed cases and the death rate grew exponentially in the United States, creating a serious public-health emergency. Unfortunately, ma ... Full text Cite

Boredom proneness, political orientation and adherence to social-distancing in the pandemic.

Journal Article Motivation and emotion · January 2021 Research recently showed that boredom proneness was associated with increased social distancing rule-breaking in a sample collected early in the COVID-19 pandemic. Here we explore data collected early in the pandemic to examine what factors might drive thi ... Full text Cite

Intellectual humility and perceptions of political opponents.

Journal Article Journal of personality · December 2020 ObjectiveIntellectual humility (IH) refers to the recognition that personal beliefs might be wrong. We investigate possible interpersonal implications of IH for how people perceive the intellectual capabilities and moral character of their sociopo ... Full text Open Access Cite

Closed-minded cognition: Right-wing authoritarianism is negatively related to belief updating following prediction error.

Journal Article Psychonomic bulletin & review · December 2020 When confronted with information that challenges our beliefs, we must often learn from error in order to successfully navigate the world. Past studies in reinforcement learning and educational psychology have linked prediction error, a measure of surprise, ... Full text Cite

Rich environments, dull experiences: how environment can exacerbate the effect of constraint on the experience of boredom.

Journal Article Cognition & emotion · November 2020 We examined the hypothesis that boredom is likely to occur when opportunity costs are high; that is, when there is a high potential value of engaging in activities other than the researcher-assigned activity. To this end, participants were either placed in ... Full text Cite

Exposure to opposing reasons reduces negative impressions of ideological opponents

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Social Psychology · November 1, 2020 Americans have become increasingly likely to dislike, distrust, and derogate their ideological opponents on contemporary social and political issues. We hypothesized that a lack of exposure to compelling reasons, arguments, and evidence from ideological op ... Full text Cite

What's in a Task? Complications in the Study of the Task-Unrelated-Thought Variety of Mind Wandering.

Journal Article Perspectives on psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science · May 2020 In recent years, the number of studies examining mind wandering has increased considerably, and research on the topic has spread widely across various domains of psychological research. Athough the term mind wandering has been used to refer to vario ... Full text Cite

Volitional media multitasking: awareness of performance costs and modulation of media multitasking as a function of task demand.

Journal Article Psychological research · March 2020 In two experiments, we sought to determine whether (a) people are aware of the frequently observed performance costs associated with engaging in media multitasking (Experiment 1), and (b) if so, whether they modulate the extent to which they engage in mult ... Full text Open Access Cite

Yearning for distraction: Evidence for a trade-off between media multitasking and mind wandering.

Journal Article Canadian journal of experimental psychology = Revue canadienne de psychologie experimentale · March 2020 We examined whether providing participants with the opportunity to media multitask influenced their tendency to be 'off-task.' More specifically, we were interested in whether providing participants with the opportunity to engage with an external media str ... Full text Cite

Missing the forest because of the trees: slower alternations during binocular rivalry are associated with lower levels of visual detail during ongoing thought.

Journal Article Neuroscience of consciousness · January 2020 Conscious awareness of the world fluctuates, either through variation in how vividly we perceive the environment, or when our attentional focus shifts away from information in the external environment towards information that we generate via imagination. O ... Full text Cite

Autonomy and control across cognition: Insights from creativity, memory, mind wandering, and reasoning research

Chapter · January 1, 2020 Increasing amounts of behavioral and neuroscientific evidence support a view in which creativity arises as a result of an interaction between associative and executive processes (Beaty, Benedek, Silvia, & Schacter, 2016; Beaty, Silvia, Nusbaum, Jauk, & Ben ... Full text Cite

Increasing participant motivation reduces rates of intentional and unintentional mind wandering.

Journal Article Psychological research · July 2019 We explored the possibility that increasing participants' motivation to perform well on a focal task can reduce mind wandering. Participants completed a sustained-attention task either with standard instructions (normal motivation), or with instructions in ... Full text Cite

Thinking about the past and future in daily life: an experience sampling study of individual differences in mental time travel.

Journal Article Psychological research · June 2019 Remembering the past and imagining the future are hallmarks of mental time travel. We provide evidence that such experiences are influenced by individual differences in temporal and affective biases in cognitive style, particularly brooding rumination (a n ... Full text Cite

Network Neuroscience of Creative Cognition: Mapping Cognitive Mechanisms and Individual Differences in the Creative Brain.

Journal Article Current opinion in behavioral sciences · June 2019 Network neuroscience research is providing increasing specificity on the contribution of large-scale brain networks to creative cognition. Here, we summarize recent experimental work examining cognitive mechanisms of network interactions and correlational ... Full text Cite

Depression, anxiety, and stress and the distinction between intentional and unintentional mind wandering

Journal Article Psychology of Consciousness: Theory Research, and Practice · June 1, 2019 We examined whether the previously documented association between mind wandering and affective dysfunction depends, at least to some extent, on whether mind wandering episodes are intentional or unintentional. In two large samples, we assessed trait-level ... Full text Cite

The Family-Resemblances Framework for Mind-Wandering Remains Well Clad.

Journal Article Trends in cognitive sciences · November 2018 Full text Cite

How pervasive is mind wandering, really?

Journal Article Consciousness and cognition · November 2018 Recent claims that people spend 30-50% of their waking lives mind wandering (Killingsworth & Gilbert, 2010; Kane et al., 2007) have become widely accepted and frequently cited. While acknowledging attention to be inconstant and wavering, and mind wandering ... Full text Cite

The role of task difficulty in theoretical accounts of mind wandering.

Journal Article Consciousness and cognition · October 2018 Recent research has indicated that reducing the difficulty of a task by increasing the predictability of critical stimuli produces increases in intentional mind wandering, but, contrary to theoretical expectations, decreases in unintentional mind wandering ... Full text Cite

On the Clock: Evidence for the Rapid and Strategic Modulation of Mind Wandering.

Journal Article Psychological science · August 2018 We examined the hypothesis that people can modulate their mind wandering on the basis of their expectations of upcoming challenges in a task. To this end, we developed a novel paradigm in which participants were presented with an analog clock, via a comput ... Full text Cite

Validating a visual version of the metronome response task.

Journal Article Behavior research methods · August 2018 The metronome response task (MRT)-a sustained-attention task that requires participants to produce a response in synchrony with an audible metronome-was recently developed to index response variability in the context of studies on mind wandering. In the pr ... Full text Cite

Mind-Wandering as a Natural Kind: A Family-Resemblances View.

Journal Article Trends in cognitive sciences · June 2018 As empirical research on mind-wandering accelerates, we draw attention to an emerging trend in how mind-wandering is conceptualized. Previously articulated definitions of mind-wandering differ from each other in important ways, yet they also maintain overl ... Full text Open Access Cite

Mind-wandering in educational settings

Chapter · April 5, 2018 Recently, there has been a growing interest in exploring the influence of mind- wandering on learning in educational settings. In considering the available research on the topic, one might draw the following conclusions: the prevalence of unintentional min ... Full text Cite

The awakening of the attention: Evidence for a link between the monitoring of mind wandering and prospective goals.

Journal Article Journal of experimental psychology. General · March 2018 Across 2 independent samples, we examined the relation between individual differences in rates of self-caught mind wandering and individual differences in temporal monitoring of an unrelated response goal. Rates of self-caught mind wandering were assessed ... Full text Open Access Cite

Intentionality and meta-awareness of mind wandering: Are they one and the same, or distinct dimensions?

Journal Article Psychonomic bulletin & review · December 2017 Researchers have recently demonstrated that mind-wandering episodes can vary on numerous dimensions, and it has been suggested that assessing these dimensions will play an important role in our understanding of mind wandering. One dimension that has receiv ... Full text Cite

Mind-wandering and task stimuli: Stimulus-dependent thoughts influence performance on memory tasks and are more often past- versus future-oriented.

Journal Article Consciousness and cognition · July 2017 Although many studies have indicated that participants frequently mind-wander during experimental tasks, relatively little research has examined the extent to which such thoughts are triggered by task stimuli (stimulus-dependent thoughts; SDTs) versus inte ... Full text Cite

Cognitive aging and the distinction between intentional and unintentional mind wandering.

Journal Article Psychology and aging · June 2017 A growing number of studies have reported age-related reductions in the frequency of mind wandering. Here, at both the trait (Study 1) and state (Study 2) levels, we reexamined this association while distinguishing between intentional (deliberate) and unin ... Full text Cite

What did you have in mind? Examining the content of intentional and unintentional types of mind wandering.

Journal Article Consciousness and cognition · May 2017 It has recently been argued that researchers should distinguish between mind wandering (MW) that is engaged with and without intention. Supporting this argument, studies have found that intentional and unintentional MW have behavioral/neural differences, a ... Full text Cite

Mindfulness and mind wandering: The protective effects of brief meditation in anxious individuals.

Journal Article Consciousness and cognition · May 2017 Mind wandering can be costly, especially when we are engaged in attentionally demanding tasks. Preliminary studies suggest that mindfulness can be a promising antidote for mind wandering, albeit the evidence is mixed. To better understand the exact impact ... Full text Cite

Intrusive thoughts: linking spontaneous mind wandering and OCD symptomatology.

Journal Article Psychological research · March 2017 One recent line of research in the literature on mind wandering has been concerned with examining rates of mind wandering in special populations, such as those characterized by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, dysphoria, and schizophrenia. To best ... Full text Cite

Individual variation in intentionality in the mind-wandering state is reflected in the integration of the default-mode, fronto-parietal, and limbic networks.

Journal Article NeuroImage · February 2017 Mind-wandering has a controversial relationship with cognitive control. Existing psychological evidence supports the hypothesis that episodes of mind-wandering reflect a failure to constrain thinking to task-relevant material, as well the apparently altern ... Full text Cite

Forget all that nonsense: The role of meaning during the forgetting of recollective and familiarity-based memories.

Journal Article Neuropsychologia · September 2016 Memory can be divided into recollection and familiarity. Recollection is characterized as the ability to vividly re-experience past events, and is believed to be supported by the hippocampus, whereas familiarity is defined as an undifferentiated feeling of ... Full text Cite

Mind-Wandering With and Without Intention.

Journal Article Trends in cognitive sciences · August 2016 The past decade has seen a surge of research examining mind-wandering, but most of this research has not considered the potential importance of distinguishing between intentional and unintentional mind-wandering. However, a recent series of papers have dem ... Full text Cite

On the relation between motivation and retention in educational contexts: The role of intentional and unintentional mind wandering.

Journal Article Psychonomic bulletin & review · August 2016 Highly motivated students often exhibit better academic performance than less motivated students. However, to date, the specific cognitive mechanisms through which motivation increases academic achievement are not well understood. Here we explored the poss ... Full text Cite

On the Necessity of Distinguishing Between Unintentional and Intentional Mind Wandering.

Journal Article Psychological science · May 2016 In recent years, there has been an enormous increase in the number of studies examining mind wandering. Although participants' reports of mind wandering are often assumed to largely reflect spontaneous, unintentional thoughts, many researchers' conceptuali ... Full text Cite

The Attention-Lapse and Motor Decoupling accounts of SART performance are not mutually exclusive.

Journal Article Consciousness and cognition · April 2016 There is an ongoing debate about the mechanisms purported to underlie performance in the Sustained-Attention-to-Response Task (SART). Whereas the Attention-Lapse account posits that SART errors result from attentional disengagement, the Motor Decoupling ac ... Full text Cite

Assessing the associations among trait and state levels of deliberate and spontaneous mind wandering.

Journal Article Consciousness and cognition · April 2016 Recent research has demonstrated that mind wandering can be subdivided into spontaneous and deliberate types, and this distinction has been found to hold at both the trait and state levels. However, to date, no attempts have been made to link trait-level s ... Full text Cite

Motivation, intentionality, and mind wandering: Implications for assessments of task-unrelated thought.

Journal Article Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition · September 2015 Researchers of mind wandering frequently assume that (a) participants are motivated to do well on the tasks they are given, and (b) task-unrelated thoughts (TUTs) that occur during task performance reflect unintentional, unwanted thoughts that occur despit ... Full text Cite

Not all mind wandering is created equal: dissociating deliberate from spontaneous mind wandering.

Journal Article Psychological research · September 2015 In two large samples we show a dissociation between trait-level tendencies to mind-wander spontaneously (unintentionally) and deliberately (intentionally). Participants completed online versions of the Mind Wandering Spontaneous (MW-S) and the Mind Wanderi ... Full text Cite

Retrieval-Induced Forgetting and Context

Journal Article Current Directions in Psychological Science · August 18, 2015 Retrieving information can result in the forgetting of related information, a phenomenon referred to as retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF). To date, the dominant explanation of RIF has been an inhibition account, which emphasizes long-term suppression of i ... Full text Cite

Can research participants comment authoritatively on the validity of their self-reports of mind wandering and task engagement?

Journal Article Journal of experimental psychology. Human perception and performance · June 2015 The study of mind wandering rests upon the assumption that people are able to consistently and accurately introspect and report on these sorts of mental experiences. Although there is some initial evidence that people can indeed accurately report on the su ... Full text Cite

On the relation of mind wandering and ADHD symptomatology.

Journal Article Psychonomic bulletin & review · June 2015 Mind wandering seems to be a prototypical feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, an important emerging distinction of mind-wandering types hinges on whether a given episode of mind wandering reflects a failure of executive con ... Full text Cite

Media multitasking and behavioral measures of sustained attention.

Journal Article Attention, perception & psychophysics · February 2015 In a series of four studies, self-reported media multitasking (using the media multitasking index; MMI) and general sustained-attention ability, through performance on three sustained-attention tasks: the metronome response task (MRT), the sustained-attent ... Full text Cite

On the link between mind wandering and task performance over time.

Journal Article Consciousness and cognition · July 2014 Here we test the hypothesis that fluctuations in subjective reports of mind wandering over time-on-task are associated with fluctuations in performance over time-on-task. In Study 1, we employed a singleton search task and found that performance did not di ... Full text Cite

Restless mind, restless body.

Journal Article Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition · May 2014 In the present work, we investigate the hypothesis that failures of task-related executive control that occur during episodes of mind wandering are associated with an increase in extraneous movements (fidgeting). In 2 studies, we assessed mind wandering us ... Full text Cite

Running the figure to the ground: figure-ground segmentation during visual search.

Journal Article Vision research · April 2014 We examined how figure-ground segmentation occurs across multiple regions of a visual array during a visual search task. Stimuli consisted of arrays of black-and-white figure-ground images in which roughly half of each image depicted a meaningful object, w ... Full text Cite

Performance reactivity in a continuous-performance task: implications for understanding post-error behavior.

Journal Article Consciousness and cognition · December 2013 Although there has been considerable interest in the effects of errors on subsequent performance, relatively few studies have considered the effects of non-error events that contain some performance-relevant information, such as correct performance on crit ... Full text Cite

Putting retrieval-induced forgetting in context: an inhibition-free, context-based account.

Journal Article Psychological review · October 2013 We present a new theoretical account of retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) together with new experimental evidence that fits this account and challenges the dominant inhibition account. RIF occurs when the retrieval of some material from memory produces la ... Full text Cite

A methodological note on evaluating performance in a sustained-attention-to-response task.

Journal Article Behavior research methods · June 2013 We evaluated the influence of speed-accuracy trade-offs on performance in the sustained attention to response task (SART), a task often used to evaluate the effectiveness of techniques designed to improve sustained attention. In the present study, we exper ... Full text Cite

Wandering in both mind and body: individual differences in mind wandering and inattention predict fidgeting.

Journal Article Canadian journal of experimental psychology = Revue canadienne de psychologie experimentale · March 2013 Anecdotal reports suggest that during periods of inattention or mind wandering, people tend to experience increased fidgeting. In four studies, we examined whether individual differences in the tendency to be inattentive and to mind wander in everyday life ... Full text Cite

Wandering minds and wavering rhythms: linking mind wandering and behavioral variability.

Journal Article Journal of experimental psychology. Human perception and performance · February 2013 Mind wandering is a pervasive feature of human cognition often associated with the withdrawal of task-related executive control processes. Here, we explore the possibility that, in tasks requiring executive control to sustain consistent responding, moments ... Full text Cite

How few and far between? Examining the effects of probe rate on self-reported mind wandering.

Journal Article Frontiers in psychology · January 2013 We examined whether the temporal rate at which thought probes are presented affects the likelihood that people will report periods of mind wandering. To evaluate this possibility, we had participants complete a sustained-attention task (the Metronome Respo ... Full text Cite

Enhancing SART Validity by Statistically Controlling Speed-Accuracy Trade-Offs.

Journal Article Frontiers in psychology · January 2013 Numerous studies focused on elucidating the correlates, causes, and consequences of inattention/attention-lapses employ the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART), a GO-NOGO task with infrequent withholds. Although the SART has become popular among in ... Full text Cite

Less we forget: retrieval cues and release from retrieval-induced forgetting.

Journal Article Memory & cognition · November 2012 Retrieving some items from memory can impair the subsequent recall of other related but not retrieved items, a phenomenon called retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF). The dominant explanation of RIF-the inhibition account-asserts that forgetting occurs becau ... Full text Cite

Analytic cognitive style predicts religious and paranormal belief.

Journal Article Cognition · June 2012 An analytic cognitive style denotes a propensity to set aside highly salient intuitions when engaging in problem solving. We assess the hypothesis that an analytic cognitive style is associated with a history of questioning, altering, and rejecting (i.e., ... Full text Cite

Consistency of sustained attention across modalities: comparing visual and auditory versions of the SART.

Journal Article Canadian journal of experimental psychology = Revue canadienne de psychologie experimentale · March 2012 We develop and assess an auditory version of an increasingly widely used measure of sustained attention, the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART). In two separate studies, the auditory SART generated slower response times and fewer errors than the v ... Full text Cite

Attention failures versus misplaced diligence: separating attention lapses from speed-accuracy trade-offs.

Journal Article Consciousness and cognition · March 2012 In two studies of a GO-NOGO task assessing sustained attention, we examined the effects of (1) altering speed-accuracy trade-offs through instructions (emphasizing both speed and accuracy or accuracy only) and (2) auditory alerts distributed throughout the ... Full text Cite