Skip to main content

Alison Suzanne Clay

Adjunct Associate Professor of the Practice of Medical Education
Medical Education

Selected Publications


Creation of an asynchronous faculty development curriculum on well-written narrative assessments that avoid bias.

Journal Article BMC Med Educ · April 14, 2023 BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic in parallel with concerns about bias in grading resulted in many medical schools adopting pass/fail clinical grading and relying solely on narrative assessments. However, narratives often contain bias and lack specificity. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Conflict resolution styles and skills and variation among medical students.

Journal Article BMC Med Educ · April 14, 2023 BACKGROUND: Conflict is inevitable on healthcare teams, yet few professional school curricula teach or assess conflict resolution skills. Little is known about the variation in conflict resolution styles across medical students and how these styles might i ... Full text Link to item Cite

In Reply to Farber et al.

Journal Article Acad Med · September 1, 2022 Full text Link to item Cite

Seeing is Believing: Inclusion of Biomedical Scientist Educators as Observers on Clinical Rounds.

Journal Article Med Sci Educ · June 2022 Increasingly, medical school curricula seek to integrate the biomedical and clinical sciences. Inclusion of the basic sciences into the clinical curricula is less robust than including clinical content early in medical school. We describe inclusion of biom ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Making Effective Educational Videos for Clinical Teaching.

Journal Article Chest · March 2022 Prerecorded video content in medical education has become more common. Increasingly accessible technology coupled with the COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent need for distanced learning has greatly increased the interest in and need for high-quality video co ... Full text Link to item Cite

Creating a win-win for the health system and health Profession's education: a direct observation clinical experience with feedback iN real-time (DOCENT) for low acuity patients in the emergency department.

Journal Article BMC Med Educ · January 27, 2022 BACKGROUND: Clinical education across the professions is challenged by a lack of recognition for faculty and pressure for patient throughput and revenue generation. These pressures may reduce direct observation of patient care provided by students, a requi ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Longitudinal Milestone Assessment Extending Through Subspecialty Training: The Relationship Between ACGME Internal Medicine Residency Milestones and Subsequent Pulmonary and Critical Care Fellowship Milestones.

Journal Article Acad Med · November 1, 2021 PURPOSE: Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) milestones were implemented across medical subspecialties in 2015. Although milestones were proposed as a longitudinal assessment tool potentially providing opportunities for early imple ... Full text Link to item Cite

Patient and Family Engagement in Critical Illness.

Journal Article Crit Care Med · September 1, 2021 Full text Link to item Cite

Implementation of Changes to Medical Student Documentation at Duke University Health System: Balancing Education With Service.

Journal Article Acad Med · June 1, 2021 PURPOSE: When the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) changed policies about medical student documentation, students with proper supervision may now document their history, physical exam, and medical decision making in the electronic health re ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Vital Conversations: An Interactive Conflict Resolution Training Session for Fourth-Year Medical Students.

Journal Article MedEdPORTAL · January 25, 2021 INTRODUCTION: The AAMC has recognized the importance of effective teamwork and collaboration. One core Entrustable Professional Activity emphasizes creating a climate of mutual respect and trust and prioritizing team needs over personal needs, which leads ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

The Duke Hotspotting Initiative: Providing Meaningful Clinical Experiences and Improving Clinical Readiness for First-Year Medical Students.

Journal Article Acad Med · November 2020 PROBLEM: Many medical schools now incorporate meaningful clinical experiences for first-year medical students (MS1s). However, these clinical placements often fail to teach components of the physician experience, including health care logistics, cost-consc ... Full text Link to item Cite

Society of Critical Care Medicine's International Consensus Conference on Prediction and Identification of Long-Term Impairments After Critical Illness.

Journal Article Crit Care Med · November 2020 BACKGROUND: After critical illness, new or worsening impairments in physical, cognitive, and/or mental health function are common among patients who have survived. Who should be screened for long-term impairments, what tools to use, and when remain unclear ... Full text Link to item Cite

Discharge summary training curriculum: a novel approach to training medical students how to write effective discharge summaries.

Journal Article Clin Teach · October 2019 BACKGROUND: Resident physicians at teaching hospitals write many discharge summaries (DCSs), but receive little formal training or feedback. Poor DCS quality poses a potential patient safety risk. METHODS: We developed a curriculum to train fourth-year med ... Full text Link to item Cite

Design and Implementation of a Peer-Reviewed Medical Education Video Competition: The Best of American Thoracic Society Video Lecture Series.

Journal Article J Grad Med Educ · October 2019 BACKGROUND: Video is an increasingly popular medium for consuming online content, and video-based education is effective for knowledge acquisition and development of technical skills. Despite the increased interest in and use of video in medical education, ... Full text Link to item Cite

Models of Peer Support to Remediate Post-Intensive Care Syndrome: A Report Developed by the Society of Critical Care Medicine Thrive International Peer Support Collaborative.

Journal Article Crit Care Med · January 2019 OBJECTIVES: Patients and caregivers can experience a range of physical, psychologic, and cognitive problems following critical care discharge. The use of peer support has been proposed as an innovative support mechanism. DESIGN: We sought to identify techn ... Full text Link to item Cite

How Prepared Are Medical and Nursing Students to Identify Common Hazards in the Intensive Care Unit?

Journal Article Ann Am Thorac Soc · April 2017 RATIONALE: Care in the hospital is hazardous. Harm in the hospital may prolong hospitalization, increase suffering, result in death, and increase costs of care. Although the interprofessional team is critical to eliminating hazards that may result in adver ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

CaPOW! Using Problem Sets in a Capstone Course to Improve Fourth-Year Medical Students' Confidence in Self-Directed Learning.

Journal Article Acad Med · March 2017 PROBLEM: Despite the importance of self-directed learning (SDL) in the field of medicine, individuals are rarely taught how to perform SDL or receive feedback on it. Trainee skill in SDL is limited by difficulties with self-assessment and goal setting. APP ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Creation of an asynchronous faculty development curriculum on well-written narrative assessments that avoid bias.

Journal Article BMC Med Educ · April 14, 2023 BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic in parallel with concerns about bias in grading resulted in many medical schools adopting pass/fail clinical grading and relying solely on narrative assessments. However, narratives often contain bias and lack specificity. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Conflict resolution styles and skills and variation among medical students.

Journal Article BMC Med Educ · April 14, 2023 BACKGROUND: Conflict is inevitable on healthcare teams, yet few professional school curricula teach or assess conflict resolution skills. Little is known about the variation in conflict resolution styles across medical students and how these styles might i ... Full text Link to item Cite

In Reply to Farber et al.

Journal Article Acad Med · September 1, 2022 Full text Link to item Cite

Seeing is Believing: Inclusion of Biomedical Scientist Educators as Observers on Clinical Rounds.

Journal Article Med Sci Educ · June 2022 Increasingly, medical school curricula seek to integrate the biomedical and clinical sciences. Inclusion of the basic sciences into the clinical curricula is less robust than including clinical content early in medical school. We describe inclusion of biom ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Making Effective Educational Videos for Clinical Teaching.

Journal Article Chest · March 2022 Prerecorded video content in medical education has become more common. Increasingly accessible technology coupled with the COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent need for distanced learning has greatly increased the interest in and need for high-quality video co ... Full text Link to item Cite

Creating a win-win for the health system and health Profession's education: a direct observation clinical experience with feedback iN real-time (DOCENT) for low acuity patients in the emergency department.

Journal Article BMC Med Educ · January 27, 2022 BACKGROUND: Clinical education across the professions is challenged by a lack of recognition for faculty and pressure for patient throughput and revenue generation. These pressures may reduce direct observation of patient care provided by students, a requi ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Longitudinal Milestone Assessment Extending Through Subspecialty Training: The Relationship Between ACGME Internal Medicine Residency Milestones and Subsequent Pulmonary and Critical Care Fellowship Milestones.

Journal Article Acad Med · November 1, 2021 PURPOSE: Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) milestones were implemented across medical subspecialties in 2015. Although milestones were proposed as a longitudinal assessment tool potentially providing opportunities for early imple ... Full text Link to item Cite

Patient and Family Engagement in Critical Illness.

Journal Article Crit Care Med · September 1, 2021 Full text Link to item Cite

Implementation of Changes to Medical Student Documentation at Duke University Health System: Balancing Education With Service.

Journal Article Acad Med · June 1, 2021 PURPOSE: When the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) changed policies about medical student documentation, students with proper supervision may now document their history, physical exam, and medical decision making in the electronic health re ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Vital Conversations: An Interactive Conflict Resolution Training Session for Fourth-Year Medical Students.

Journal Article MedEdPORTAL · January 25, 2021 INTRODUCTION: The AAMC has recognized the importance of effective teamwork and collaboration. One core Entrustable Professional Activity emphasizes creating a climate of mutual respect and trust and prioritizing team needs over personal needs, which leads ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

The Duke Hotspotting Initiative: Providing Meaningful Clinical Experiences and Improving Clinical Readiness for First-Year Medical Students.

Journal Article Acad Med · November 2020 PROBLEM: Many medical schools now incorporate meaningful clinical experiences for first-year medical students (MS1s). However, these clinical placements often fail to teach components of the physician experience, including health care logistics, cost-consc ... Full text Link to item Cite

Society of Critical Care Medicine's International Consensus Conference on Prediction and Identification of Long-Term Impairments After Critical Illness.

Journal Article Crit Care Med · November 2020 BACKGROUND: After critical illness, new or worsening impairments in physical, cognitive, and/or mental health function are common among patients who have survived. Who should be screened for long-term impairments, what tools to use, and when remain unclear ... Full text Link to item Cite

Discharge summary training curriculum: a novel approach to training medical students how to write effective discharge summaries.

Journal Article Clin Teach · October 2019 BACKGROUND: Resident physicians at teaching hospitals write many discharge summaries (DCSs), but receive little formal training or feedback. Poor DCS quality poses a potential patient safety risk. METHODS: We developed a curriculum to train fourth-year med ... Full text Link to item Cite

Design and Implementation of a Peer-Reviewed Medical Education Video Competition: The Best of American Thoracic Society Video Lecture Series.

Journal Article J Grad Med Educ · October 2019 BACKGROUND: Video is an increasingly popular medium for consuming online content, and video-based education is effective for knowledge acquisition and development of technical skills. Despite the increased interest in and use of video in medical education, ... Full text Link to item Cite

Models of Peer Support to Remediate Post-Intensive Care Syndrome: A Report Developed by the Society of Critical Care Medicine Thrive International Peer Support Collaborative.

Journal Article Crit Care Med · January 2019 OBJECTIVES: Patients and caregivers can experience a range of physical, psychologic, and cognitive problems following critical care discharge. The use of peer support has been proposed as an innovative support mechanism. DESIGN: We sought to identify techn ... Full text Link to item Cite

How Prepared Are Medical and Nursing Students to Identify Common Hazards in the Intensive Care Unit?

Journal Article Ann Am Thorac Soc · April 2017 RATIONALE: Care in the hospital is hazardous. Harm in the hospital may prolong hospitalization, increase suffering, result in death, and increase costs of care. Although the interprofessional team is critical to eliminating hazards that may result in adver ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

CaPOW! Using Problem Sets in a Capstone Course to Improve Fourth-Year Medical Students' Confidence in Self-Directed Learning.

Journal Article Acad Med · March 2017 PROBLEM: Despite the importance of self-directed learning (SDL) in the field of medicine, individuals are rarely taught how to perform SDL or receive feedback on it. Trainee skill in SDL is limited by difficulties with self-assessment and goal setting. APP ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Urgent And Emergent Medical Conditions: Entrustment Decisions At The End Of Medical School

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE · January 1, 2017 Link to item Cite

To Tweet Or Not To Tweet? Regularly Is The Answer: Lessons From The American Thoracic Society Assembly Twitter Accounts

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE · January 1, 2017 Link to item Cite

Engaging Survivors of Critical Illness in Health Care Assessment and Policy Development. Ethical and Practical Complexities.

Journal Article Ann Am Thorac Soc · November 2016 Health systems, granting agencies, and professional societies are increasingly involving patients and their family members in the delivery of health care and the improvement of health sciences. This is a laudable advance toward fully patient-centered medic ... Full text Link to item Cite

How We Engage Graduating Professional Students in Interprofessional Patient Safety.

Journal Article Nurs Forum · October 2016 PROBLEM: Interprofessional curricula on patient safety do not acknowledge the culture and vulnerabilities of the student experience and often do not engage students. METHODS: We describe a patient safety collaboration between graduating nursing and medical ... Full text Link to item Cite

Preparing Residents to Be Effective Teachers: Get an Early Start!

Journal Article Medical Science Educator · September 1, 2016 Resident physicians play an essential role as teachers, but time to learn to teach effectively during residency is limited. Targeted education prior to beginning residency may help combat this problem. We successfully implemented a highly rated Effective C ... Full text Cite

Teaching at the Bedside: Managing Patient and Learner Expectations in Advance Reply

Journal Article ANNALS OF THE AMERICAN THORACIC SOCIETY · June 1, 2016 Link to item Cite

Teaching at the Bedside. Maximal Impact in Minimal Time.

Journal Article Ann Am Thorac Soc · April 2016 Academic physicians encounter many demands on their time including patient care, quality and performance requirements, research, and education. In an era when patient volume is prioritized and competition for research funding is intense, there is a risk th ... Full text Link to item Cite

Using Transitional Year Milestones to Assess Graduating Medical Students' Skills During a Capstone Course.

Journal Article J Grad Med Educ · December 2015 BACKGROUND: Undergraduate medical education (UME) follows the lead of graduate medical education (GME) in moving to competency-based assessment. The means for and the timing of competency-based assessments in UME are unclear. OBJECTIVE: We explored the fea ... Full text Link to item Cite

The emotions of graduating medical students about prior patient care experiences.

Journal Article Patient Educ Couns · March 2015 OBJECTIVES: To determine the emotional responses to patient care activities described by fourth year medical students. METHODS: Qualitative content analysis for emerging themes in letters written by graduating medical students to patients during a Capstone ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Impact of a Mandatory Immersion Curriculum in Integrative Medicine for Graduating Medical Students.

Journal Article Explore (NY) · 2015 BACKGROUND: Although many Americans utilize complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) services and products, few medical school curricula consistently provide instruction in counseling patients on the use of CAM or strategies for identifying credible ev ... Full text Link to item Cite

Round And Round We Go: Improving Rounding Efficiency And Learning Climate With An Icu Dashboard

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE · January 1, 2015 Link to item Cite

Assessing The Education Needs Of American Thoracic Society Medical Educators

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE · January 1, 2015 Link to item Cite

Standardized Instruction And Assessment For Urgent And Emergent Medical Conditions In The 4th Year Of Medical School

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE · January 1, 2015 Link to item Cite

Medical error. The personal cost.

Journal Article Ann Am Thorac Soc · December 2013 Full text Link to item Cite

It Takes a Village”: An Interprofessional Patient Safety Experience for Nursing and Medical Students

Journal Article Medical Science Educator · October 1, 2013 Background: Interprofessional education (IPE) is a “core” competency in professional school education. Challenges to successful collaboration include: aligning student abilities/experience, providing meaningful clinically-based interaction, and the need fo ... Full text Cite

One-year trajectories of care and resource utilization for recipients of prolonged mechanical ventilation: a cohort study.

Journal Article Ann Intern Med · August 3, 2010 BACKGROUND: Growing numbers of critically ill patients receive prolonged mechanical ventilation. Little is known about the patterns of care as patients transition from acute care hospitals to postacute care facilities or about the associated resource utili ... Full text Link to item Cite

Expectations and outcomes of prolonged mechanical ventilation.

Journal Article Crit Care Med · November 2009 OBJECTIVE: To compare prolonged mechanical ventilation decision-makers' expectations for long-term patient outcomes with prospectively observed outcomes and to characterize important elements of the surrogate-physician interaction surrounding prolonged mec ... Full text Link to item Cite

Surviving critical illness: acute respiratory distress syndrome as experienced by patients and their caregivers.

Journal Article Crit Care Med · October 2009 OBJECTIVE: To characterize the effects of critical illness in the daily lives and functioning of acute respiratory distress syndrome survivors. Survivors of acute respiratory distress syndrome, a systemic critical illness, often report poor quality of life ... Full text Link to item Cite

Multisociety task force recommendations of competencies in Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine.

Journal Article Am J Respir Crit Care Med · August 15, 2009 RATIONALE: Numerous accrediting organizations are calling for competency-based medical education that would help define specific specialties and serve as a foundation for ongoing assessment throughout a practitioner's career. Pulmonary Medicine and Critica ... Full text Link to item Cite

Current teaching and evaluation methods in critical care medicine: has the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education affected how we practice and teach in the intensive care unit?

Journal Article Crit Care Med · January 2009 OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education mandates for duty hours and competencies on instruction, evaluation, and patient care in intensive care units in the United States. DESIGN: A Web-based survey wa ... Full text Link to item Cite

Potentially Ineffective Care (PIC) and Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation (PMV)

Journal Article AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE · January 1, 2009 Link to item Cite

Total parenteral nutrition for patients with advanced life-limiting cancer: Decision-making in the face of conflicting evidence

Journal Article Progress in Palliative Care · August 25, 2008 Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) offers a method for ensuring adequate nutritional intake in patients whose eating is compromised; for reasons related to treatment side effects and their disease itself, end-stage cancer patients comprise a significant prop ... Full text Cite

Effects of respiratory-therapist driven protocols on house-staff knowledge and education of mechanical ventilation.

Journal Article Clin Chest Med · June 2008 High practice variability in critical care medicine contributes to medical errors and the high cost of ICU care. Clinical guidelines and protocol-based strategies can reduce the variation and cost of ICU medicine, increase adherence to evidence-based inter ... Full text Link to item Cite

Hyperammonemia in the ICU.

Journal Article Chest · October 2007 Patients experiencing acute elevations of ammonia present to the ICU with encephalopathy, which may progress quickly to cerebral herniation. Patient survival requires immediate treatment of intracerebral hypertension and the reduction of ammonia levels. Wh ... Full text Link to item Cite

Development of a web-based, specialty specific portfolio.

Journal Article Med Teach · May 2007 BACKGROUND: This article illustrates the creation of a specialty specific portfolio that can be used by several different residency programs to document resident competence during a given rotation. METHODS: Three different disciplines (anesthesiology, surg ... Full text Link to item Cite

Debriefing in the intensive care unit: a feedback tool to facilitate bedside teaching.

Journal Article Crit Care Med · March 2007 OBJECTIVE: To develop an assessment tool for bedside teaching in the intensive care unit (ICU) that provides feedback to residents about their performance compared with clinical best practices. METHOD: We reviewed the literature on the assessment of reside ... Full text Link to item Cite

Two Sides to the Bed: Physician-Patient and Physician-Friend

Journal Article Clinical Pediatric Emergency Medicine · December 1, 2006 Errors can happen in the most accomplished of systems, and healthcare providers need a better understanding of what effect these errors have on patients, what we must do to respond to errors, and what we can do to prevent them. The authors describe a medic ... Full text Cite

Enterococcus faecalis causing empyema in a patient with liver disease.

Journal Article South Med J · October 2002 A 57-year-old man with a history of liver disease had shortness of breath, fever, and pleuritic chest pain. Ascites was not present. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest revealed a large unilateral pleural effusion, compressive atelectasis, and no evidenc ... Link to item Cite

Mitochondrial disease: a pulmonary and critical-care medicine perspective.

Journal Article Chest · August 2001 The clinical spectrum of mitochondrial diseases has expanded dramatically in the last decade. Abnormalities of mitochondrial function are now thought to participate in a number of common adult diseases, ranging from exercise intolerance to aging. This revi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Management of myxedematous respiratory failure: review of ventilation and weaning principles.

Journal Article Am J Med Sci · December 2000 Respiratory failure in myxedema is a complex medical emergency and may require prolonged ventilatory assistance. Appropriate management of this medical problem requires an understanding of its effects on the central nervous system and peripheral neuromuscu ... Full text Link to item Cite

The medical student as patient.

Journal Article Ann Intern Med · August 3, 1999 Full text Link to item Cite