Barbara A. Carroll
Professor Emeritus of Radiology
DOPPLER, VASCLAR FLOW PHENOMENA, AND 3-DIMENSIONAL ULTRASOUND
In 1994 I was involved in conducting numerous research projects dealing with Doppler analysis of normal and abnormal blood flow in numerous organ systems and anatomic areas. Research into the effects of pregnancy on renal blood flow demonstrated no significant changes in renal blood flow parameters in response to normal pregnancy, allowing one to take advantage of renal artery analysis to predict pathological renal obstruction that could occur during pregnancy. Further evaluation of maternal renal blood flow in pathologic conditions is ongoing. Renal artery waveform analysis was shown to be a less than ideal screening test for suspected renal vascular hypertension. ROC analysis of waveform showed excellent intraobserver correlation, however, this technique could not be used to screen for renal artery stenosis. Ongoing analysis into the pathophysiology of carotid arterial disease continues. A re-evaluation of symmetry of blood flow in the carotid arteries as assessed by Doppler ultrasound is ongoing. Furthermore, the 3-dimensional jet phenomenon associated with stenotic lesions is continuing. We have begun preliminary interactions with Berlex to institute projects dealing with ultrasound contrast agents. In addition, preliminary work is underwary to provide more quantitated assessment of the effects of contrast agents. Initial animal experiments which were conducted demonstrated significant animal model differences between contrast agent longevity and that seen in humans. Studies with the Biomedical Engineering Department have shown that it is possible to improve imaging in phantoms and in humans by on-line time of flight phase aberration corrections. Studies into this area will be continuing this years. High speed volumetric ultrasound imaging allowing real time 3-dimensional ultrasound imaging is also being developed in conjunction with the Biomedical Engineering Department. Funding for both of these projects which are ongoing in conjunction with Biomedical Engineering Department is anticipated to continue for several years. Sonus Pharmaceuticals provided financial support during the clinical testing and development of ultrasound contrast agents in 1994-1995.
Research projects anticipated for this year include: 1) Ongoing analysis of 3-dimensional flow vectors in carotid stenosis, 2) Phase aberration and compound ultrasound scanning trials, 3) 3-dimensional volumetric real time ultrasound imaging, 4) Development of ultrasound contrast agent quantitative assessment as well as clinical trials, 5) Analysis of renal artery flow waveforms in patients having enaloprilat radionuclide exams for suspected renovascular hypertension, 6) An assessment of clinical parameters, laboratory data, and ultrasound analysis of renal nephrocalcinosis in patients with hypophosphatemic rickets, 7) Ongoing studies evaluating the utility and accuracy of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging for detecting deep venous thrombosis, as well as defining the features of acute versus chronic venous thrombus, 8) Evaluation of a new low molecular weight heparin for DVT treatment, 9) Assessment of vertebral arterial pathology and waveforms, and 10) Development of a flow phantom capable of being used to assess the Doppler and color Doppler signal responses of contrast agents in ultrasound, and 11) Evaluation of renal transplant arterial stenosis.
Current Appointments & Affiliations
Education, Training, & Certifications
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