Preoperative Assessment and Management of Patients with Pain and Anxiety Disorders.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes selected recent evidence on issues important for preoperative pain evaluation. RECENT FINDINGS: Opioids, though a mainstay of postoperative pain management, are associated with both short and increasingly recognized long-term risks, including persistent opioid use. Risk factors for high levels of acute postoperative pain as well as chronic postsurgical pain may overlap, including psychological factors such as depression, anxiety, and catastrophizing. Tools to predict those at risk for poor postoperative pain outcomes are being studied. SUMMARY: Preoperative pain and psychological factors can affect postoperative pain outcomes. More work is needed in the future to develop practical interventions in the preoperative period to address these factors.