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Dynamic injury tolerances for long bones of the female upper extremity.

Publication ,  Journal Article
Duma, SM; Schreiber, PH; McMaster, JD; Crandall, JR; Bass, CR; Pilkey, WD
Published in: Journal of anatomy
April 1999

This paper presents the dynamic injury tolerances for the female humerus and forearm derived from dynamic 3-point bending tests using 22 female cadaver upper extremities. Twelve female humeri were tested at an average strain rate of 3.7+/-1.3%/s. The strain rates were chosen to be representative of those observed during upper extremity interaction with frontal and side airbags. The average moment to failure when mass scaled for the 5th centile female was 128+/-19 Nm. Using data from the in situ strain gauges during the drop tests and geometric properties obtained from pretest CT scans, an average dynamic elastic modulus for the female humerus was found to be 24.4+/-3.9 GPa. The injury tolerance for the forearm was determined from 10 female forearms tested at an average strain rate of 3.94+/-2.0%/s. Using 3 matched forearm pairs, it was determined that the forearm is 21% stronger in the supinated position (92+/-5 Nm) versus the pronated position (75+/-7 Nm). Two distinct fracture patterns were seen for the pronated and supinated groups. In the supinated position the average difference in fracture time between the radius and ulna was a negligible 0.4+/-0.3 ms. However, the pronated tests yielded an average difference in fracture time of 3.6+/-1.2 ms, with the ulna breaking before the radius in every test. This trend implies that in the pronated position, the ulna and radius are loaded independently, while in the supinated position the ulna and radius are loaded together as a combined structure. To produce a conservative injury criterion, a total of 7 female forearms were tested in the pronated position, which resulted in the forearm injury criterion of 58+/-12 Nm when scaled for the 5th centile female. It is anticipated that these data will provide injury reference values for the female forearm during driver air bag loading, and the female humerus during side air bag loading.

Duke Scholars

Published In

Journal of anatomy

DOI

EISSN

1469-7580

ISSN

0021-8782

Publication Date

April 1999

Volume

194 ( Pt 3)

Start / End Page

463 / 471

Related Subject Headings

  • Ulna
  • Supination
  • Stress, Mechanical
  • Radius
  • Pronation
  • Movement
  • Humerus
  • Humans
  • Fractures, Bone
  • Female
 

Citation

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MLA
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Duma, S. M., Schreiber, P. H., McMaster, J. D., Crandall, J. R., Bass, C. R., & Pilkey, W. D. (1999). Dynamic injury tolerances for long bones of the female upper extremity. Journal of Anatomy, 194 ( Pt 3), 463–471. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1469-7580.1999.19430463.x
Duma, S. M., P. H. Schreiber, J. D. McMaster, J. R. Crandall, C. R. Bass, and W. D. Pilkey. “Dynamic injury tolerances for long bones of the female upper extremity.Journal of Anatomy 194 ( Pt 3) (April 1999): 463–71. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1469-7580.1999.19430463.x.
Duma SM, Schreiber PH, McMaster JD, Crandall JR, Bass CR, Pilkey WD. Dynamic injury tolerances for long bones of the female upper extremity. Journal of anatomy. 1999 Apr;194 ( Pt 3):463–71.
Duma, S. M., et al. “Dynamic injury tolerances for long bones of the female upper extremity.Journal of Anatomy, vol. 194 ( Pt 3), Apr. 1999, pp. 463–71. Epmc, doi:10.1046/j.1469-7580.1999.19430463.x.
Duma SM, Schreiber PH, McMaster JD, Crandall JR, Bass CR, Pilkey WD. Dynamic injury tolerances for long bones of the female upper extremity. Journal of anatomy. 1999 Apr;194 ( Pt 3):463–471.
Journal cover image

Published In

Journal of anatomy

DOI

EISSN

1469-7580

ISSN

0021-8782

Publication Date

April 1999

Volume

194 ( Pt 3)

Start / End Page

463 / 471

Related Subject Headings

  • Ulna
  • Supination
  • Stress, Mechanical
  • Radius
  • Pronation
  • Movement
  • Humerus
  • Humans
  • Fractures, Bone
  • Female