Profiles of serum cytokines in acute drug-induced liver injury and their prognostic significance.
UNLABELLED: Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is the most common cause of acute liver failure in the United-States. The aim of the study was to describe serum immune profiles associated with acute DILI, to investigate whether there are profiles associated with clinical features or types of DILI and/or with prognosis, and to assess temporal changes in levels. Twenty-seven immune analytes were measured in the sera of 78 DILI subjects in the Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) and compared with 40 healthy controls. Immune analytes (14 cytokines, 7 chemokines and 6 growth factors) were measured by BioPlex multiplex ELISA at DILI onset and after 6 months. A modeling process utilizing immune principles was used to select a final set of variables among 27 immune analytes and several additional clinical lab values for prediction of early death (within 6 months of DILI onset). Nineteen of the 27 immune analytes were differentially expressed among healthy control, DILI onset and 6-month cohorts. Disparate patterns of immune responses, especially innate and adaptive cellular (mostly TH17) immunity were evident. Low values of four immune analytes (IL-9, IL-17, PDGF-bb and RANTES) and serum albumin are predictive of early death [PPV = 88% (95% CI, 65%-100%), NPV = 97% (95% CI, 93%-100%), accuracy = 96% (95% CI, 92%-100%)]. CONCLUSIONS: Acute DILI is associated with robust and varying immune responses. High levels of expression of cytokines associated with innate immunity are associated with a poor prognosis, whereas high levels of expression of adaptive cytokines are associated with good long-term prognosis and eventual recovery. Serum immune analyte profiles at DILI onset appear to be of prognostic, and perhaps, diagnostic significance.
Steuerwald, NM; Foureau, DM; Norton, HJ; Zhou, J; Parsons, JC; Chalasani, N; Fontana, RJ; Watkins, PB; Lee, WM; Reddy, KR; Stolz, A; Talwalkar, J; Davern, T; Saha, D; Bell, LN; Barnhart, H; Gu, J; Serrano, J; Bonkovsky, HL
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