Smoking and risk of low- and high-grade prostate cancer: results from the REDUCE study.
Although the relationship between smoking and prostate cancer risk is inconsistent, some studies show that smoking is associated with prostate cancer mortality. Whether this reflects delayed diagnosis or direct smoking-related effects is unknown. REDUCE, which followed biopsy-negative men with protocol-dictated prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-independent biopsies at 2 and 4 years, provides an opportunity to evaluate smoking and prostate cancer diagnosis with minimal confounding from screening biases.Logistic regression was conducted to test the association between smoking and cancer on the first on-study biopsy (no cancer, low-grade Gleason 4-6, high-grade Gleason 7-10) in REDUCE.Of 6,240 men with complete data and ≥1 on-study biopsy, 2,937 (45.8%) never smoked, 929 (14.5%) were current smokers, and 2,554 (39.8%) were former smokers. Among men with negative first on-study biopsies, smokers were 36% less likely to receive a second on-study biopsy (P < 0.001). At first on-study biopsy, 941 (14.7%) men had cancer. Both current and former smoking were not significantly associated with either total or low-grade prostate cancer (all P > 0.36). Current (OR = 1.44, P = 0.028) but not former smokers (OR = 1.21, P = 0.12) were at increased risk of high-grade disease. On secondary analysis, there was an interaction between smoking and body mass index (BMI; Pinteraction = 0.017): current smokers with BMI ≤ 25 kg/m(2) had an increased risk of low-grade (OR = 1.54, P = 0.043) and high-grade disease (OR = 2.45, P = 0.002), with null associations for BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2).Among men with elevated PSA and negative pre-study biopsy in REDUCE, in which biopsies were largely PSA independent, smoking was unrelated to overall prostate cancer diagnosis but was associated with increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer.
Ho, T; Howard, LE; Vidal, AC; Gerber, L; Moreira, D; McKeever, M; Andriole, G; Castro-Santamaria, R; Freedland, SJ
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