Bevacizumab and the risk of arterial and venous thromboembolism in patients with metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer treated on Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 90401 (Alliance).
BACKGROUND: Bevacizumab is associated with an increased risk of arterial thromboembolism (ATE); however, its effect on venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains controversial. Scant data exist on the factors that increase the risk of ATE/VTE in patients with prostate cancer. The authors investigated the association of bevacizumab treatment and clinical factors with ATE/VTE risk in patients who were treated on Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) trial 90401. METHODS: Patients with metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer were randomized to receive docetaxel and prednisone with or without bevacizumab once every 21 days. Cycle-to-event Cox regression models were used to investigate the association of bevacizumab with the incidence of grade 3 or greater (≥ 3) ATE and VTE. Age, prior ATE/VTE, baseline antiplatelet/anticoagulant use, and VTE risk score (based on leukocyte count, hemoglobin, platelet count, body mass index, and tumor location) were evaluated in univariate and multivariable analyses. RESULTS: Of 1008 randomized patients, the odds of experiencing grade ≥ 3 ATE were significantly greater in those who received bevacizumab compared with those who received placebo (odds ratio, 2.79; P = .02), whereas an opposite trend was noted for grade ≥ 3 VTE (odds ratio, 0.60; P = .08). In the multivariable analysis, bevacizumab treatment (hazard ratio [HR], 3.00; P = .01) and age (HR, 1.06; P = .02) were significantly associated with the risk of ATE; whereas age (HR, 1.05; P = .01) and VTE risk score (HR, 1.83; P = .03) were significantly associated with the risk of VTE. CONCLUSIONS: Bevacizumab was significantly associated with a greater risk of ATE in patients with metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer, but it was not significantly associated with the risk of VTE. Understanding clinical factors that increase the risk for experiencing ATE/VTE is essential to mitigate the risks and reduce the burden of these prevalent complications in cancer care.
Patel, JN; Jiang, C; Hertz, DL; Mulkey, FA; Owzar, K; Halabi, S; Ratain, MJ; Friedman, PN; Small, EJ; Carducci, MA; Mahoney, JF; Kelley, MJ; Morris, MJ; Kelly, WK; McLeod, HL
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