Visual enhancement of laparoscopic nephrectomies using the 3-CCD camera
Many surgical techniques are currently shifting from the more conventional, open approach towards minimally invasive laparoscopic procedures. Laparoscopy results in smaller incisions, potentially leading to less postoperative pain and more rapid recoveries. One key disadvantage of laparoscopic surgery is the loss of three-dimensional assessment of organs and tissue perfusion. Advances in laparoscopic technology include high-definition monitors for improved visualization and upgraded single charge coupled device (CCD) detectors to 3-CCD cameras, to provide a larger, more sensitive color palette to increase the perception of detail. In this discussion, we further advance existing laparoscopic technology to create greater enhancement of images obtained during radical and partial nephrectomies in which the assessment of tissue perfusion is crucial but limited with current 3-CCD cameras. By separating the signals received by each CCD in the 3-CCD camera and by introducing a straight forward algorithm, rapid differentiation of renal vessels and perfusion is accomplished and could be performed real time. The newly acquired images are overlaid onto conventional images for reference and comparison. This affords the surgeon the ability to accurately detect changes in tissue oxygenation despite inherent limitations of the visible light image. Such additional capability should impact procedures in which visual assessment of organ vitality is critical.
Crane, NJ; Kansal, NS; Dhanani, N; Alemozaffar, M; Kirk, AD; Pinto, PA; Elster, EA; Huffman, SW; Levin, IW
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International Standard Book Number 10 (ISBN-10)
International Standard Book Number 13 (ISBN-13)
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