CXCR3-mediated T-cell chemotaxis involves ZAP-70 and is regulated by signalling through the T-cell receptor.
The chemokine receptor CXCR3 is critical for the function of activated T cells. We studied the molecular mechanisms of CXCR3 signalling. The addition of CXCR3 ligands to normal human T cells expressing CXCR3 led to the tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple proteins. Addition of the same ligands to Jurkat T cells engineered to express CXCR3 induced tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins with molecular weights similar to those in normal cells. Immunoblotting with phosphotyrosine-specific antibodies identified Zeta-associated protein of 70,000 molecular weight (ZAP-70), linker for the activation of T cells (LAT), and phospholipase-C-gamma1 (PLCgamma1) to be among the proteins that become phosphorylated upon CXCR3 activation. ZAP-70 was phosphorylated on tyrosine 319, LAT on tyrosines 171 and 191, and PLCgamma1 on tyrosine 783. The ZAP-70 inhibitor piceatannol reduced CXCR3-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of ZAP-70, LAT, PLCgamma1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase Erk and it reduced CXCL10-mediated chemotaxis of both CXCR3-transfected Jurkat T cells and normal T cells expressing CXCR3. These results are consistent with the involvement of ZAP-70 in CXCR3-mediated protein tyrosine phosphorylation and CXCR3-induced T-cell chemotaxis. Studies with the Lck-deficient Jurkat T-cell line, JCAM1.6, demonstrated that phosphorylation of ZAP-70 after CXCR3 activation is a Lck-dependent process. Finally, stimulating CXCR3-expressing Jurkat T cells and normal T cells expressing CXCR3 through the T-cell receptor attenuated CXCR3-induced tyrosine phosphorylation and CXCR3-mediated T-cell migration, indicating the occurrence of cross-talk between T-cell receptor and CXCR3-signalling pathways. These results shed light on the mechanisms of CXCR3 signalling. Such information could be useful when designing therapeutic strategies to regulate T-cell function.
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