Cardiac arrest and clinical characteristics, treatments and outcomes among patients hospitalized with ST-elevation myocardial infarction in contemporary practice: A report from the National Cardiovascular Data Registry.
BACKGROUND: Cardiac arrest (CA) is a major complication of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Its prevalence and prognostic impact in contemporary US practice has not been well assessed. METHODS: We evaluated STEMI patients included in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry (NCDR) Acute Coronary Treatment Intervention Outcomes Network Registry-Get With the Guidelines (ACTION Registry-GWTG) from 4/1/11 to 6/30/12. Patient clinical characteristics, treatments, and inhospital outcomes were compared by the presence or absence of CA on first medical contact-either before hospital arrival or upon presentation to the ACTION hospital. RESULTS: Of the 49,279 STEMI patients included, 3,716 (7.5%) had CA. Cardiac arrest patients were more likely to have heart failure (15.5% vs 6.9%) and shock (42.9% vs 4.9%) on presentation and higher median (25th and 75th percentiles) ACTION Registry-GWTG mortality risk scores (42 [32, 54] vs 32 [26, 38]) than non-CA patients (all P < .001). Primary percutaneous coronary intervention was performed in most patients with and without CA (76.7% vs 79.1%). Inhospital mortality was significantly higher in patients with than without CA (28.8% vs 4.0%; P < .001), both in patients who presented with cardiogenic shock (46.9% vs 27.1%; P < .001) and those without shock (15.4% vs 2.9%; P < .001). The ACTION Registry-GWTG inhospital mortality model underestimated mortality risk in CA patients; however, prediction significantly improved after adding CA to the model. CONCLUSIONS: Almost 8% of STEMI patients present with CA. More than 25% die during the hospitalization, despite high use of primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Cardiogenic shock and CA frequently coexist. Our results suggest that development of systems of care and treatments for both STEMI and CA is needed to reduce the high mortality in these patients.
Kontos, MC; Scirica, BM; Chen, AY; Thomas, L; Anderson, ML; Diercks, DB; Jollis, JG; Roe, MT; NCDR,
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