Multi-spin echo spatial encoding provides three-fold improvement of temperature precision during intermolecular zero quantum thermometry.

Journal Article (Journal Article)


Intermolecular multiple quantum coherences (iMQCs) are a source of MR contrast with applications including temperature imaging, anisotropy mapping, and brown fat imaging. Because all applications are limited by signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), we developed a pulse sequence that detects intermolecular zero quantum coherences with improved SNR.


A previously developed pulse sequence that detects iMQCs, HOMOGENIZED with off resonance transfer (HOT), was modified with a multi-spin echo spatial encoding scheme (MSE-HOT). MSE-HOT uses a series of refocusing pulses to generate a stack of images that are averaged in postprocessing for higher SNR. MSE-HOT performance was quantified by measuring its temperature accuracy and precision during hyperthermia of ex vivo red bone marrow samples.


MSE-HOT yielded a three-fold improvement in temperature precision relative to previous pulse sequences. Sources of improved precision were 1) echo averaging and 2) suppression of J-coupling in the methylene protons of fat. MSE-HOT measured temperature change with an accuracy of 0.6°C.


MSE-HOT improved the temperature accuracy and precision of HOT to a level that is sufficient for hyperthermia of bone marrow.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Davis, RM; Zhou, Z; Chung, H; Warren, WS

Published Date

  • May 2016

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 75 / 5

Start / End Page

  • 1958 - 1966

PubMed ID

  • 26077531

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC4681701

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1522-2594

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0740-3194

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1002/mrm.25789


  • eng