AMBITION-cm: intermittent high dose AmBisome on a high dose fluconazole backbone for cryptococcal meningitis induction therapy in sub-Saharan Africa: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a leading cause of mortality among HIV-infected individuals in Africa. Poor outcomes from conventional antifungal therapies, unavailability of flucytosine, and difficulties administering 14 days of amphotericin B are key drivers of this mortality. Novel treatment regimes are needed. This study examines whether short-course high-dose liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome), given with high dose fluconazole, is non-inferior (in terms of microbiological and clinical endpoints) to standard-dose 14-day courses of AmBisome plus high dose fluconazole for treatment of HIV-associated CM. METHODOLOGY/DESIGN: This is an adaptive open-label phase II/III randomised non-inferiority trial comparing alternative short course AmBisome regimens. Step 1 (phase II) will compare four treatment arms in 160 adult patients (≥ 18 years old) with a first episode of HIV-associated CM, using early fungicidal activity (EFA) as the primary outcome: 1) AmBisome 10 mg/kg day one (single dose); 2) AmBisome 10 mg/kg day one and AmBisome 5 mg/kg day three (two doses); 3) AmBisome 10 mg/kg day one, and AmBisome 5 mg/kg days three and seven (three doses); and 4) AmBisome 3 mg/kg/d for 14 days (control); all given with fluconazole 1200 mg daily for 14 days. STEP 2 (phase III) will enrol 300 participants and compare two treatment arms using all-cause mortality within 70 days as the primary outcome: 1) the shortest course AmBisome regimen found to be non-inferior in terms of EFA to the 14-day control arm in STEP 1, and 2) AmBisome 3 mg/kg/d for 14 days (control), both given with fluconazole 1200 mg daily for 14 days. STEP 2 analysis will include all patients from STEP 1 and STEP 2 taking the STEP 2 regimens. All patients will be followed for ten weeks, and mortality and safety data recorded. All patients will receive consolidation therapy with fluconazole 400-800 mg daily and ART in accordance with local guidelines. The primary analysis (for both STEP 1 and STEP 2) will be intention-to-treat. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN10248064. Date of Registration: 22 January 2014.
Molefi, M; Chofle, AA; Molloy, SF; Kalluvya, S; Changalucha, JM; Cainelli, F; Leeme, T; Lekwape, N; Goldberg, DW; Haverkamp, M; Bisson, GP; Perfect, JR; Letang, E; Fenner, L; Meintjes, G; Burton, R; Makadzange, T; Ndhlovu, CE; Hope, W; Harrison, TS; Jarvis, JN
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