Two-dimensional fluorescence intensity distribution analysis: theory and applications.
A method of sample analysis is presented which is based on fitting a joint distribution of photon count numbers. In experiments, fluorescence from a microscopic volume containing a fluctuating number of molecules is monitored by two detectors, using a confocal microscope. The two detectors may have different polarizational or spectral responses. Concentrations of fluorescent species together with two specific brightness values per species are determined. The two-dimensional fluorescence intensity distribution analysis (2D-FIDA), if used with a polarization cube, is a tool that is able to distinguish fluorescent species with different specific polarization ratios. As an example of polarization studies by 2D-FIDA, binding of 5'-(6-carboxytetramethylrhodamine) (TAMRA)-labeled theophylline to an anti-theophylline antibody has been studied. Alternatively, if two-color equipment is used, 2D-FIDA can determine concentrations and specific brightness values of fluorescent species corresponding to individual labels alone and their complex. As an example of two-color 2D-FIDA, binding of TAMRA-labeled somatostatin-14 to the human type-2 high-affinity somatostatin receptors present in stained vesicles has been studied. The presented method is unusually accurate among fluorescence fluctuation methods. It is well suited for monitoring a variety of molecular interactions, including receptors and ligands or antibodies and antigens.
Kask, P; Palo, K; Fay, N; Brand, L; Mets, U; Ullmann, D; Jungmann, J; Pschorr, J; Gall, K
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