Nanoindentation of shape memory polymer networks
This work examines the small-scale deformation and thermally induced recovery behavior of shape memory polymer networks as a function of crosslinking structure. Copolymer shape memory materials based on diethylene glycol dimethacrylate and polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate with a molecular weight of 550 crosslinkers and a tert-butyl acrylate linear chain monomer were synthesized with varying weight percentages of crosslinker from 0 to 100%. Dynamic mechanical analysis is used to acquire the bulk thermomechanical properties of the polymers, including the glass transition temperature and the elastic modulus over a wide temperature range. Instrumented nanoindentation is used to examine ambient temperature deformation of the polymer networks below their glass transition temperature. The glassy modulus of the networks measured using nanoindentation is relatively constant as a function of crosslinking density, and consistent with values extracted from monotonic tensile tests. The ambient temperature hardness of the networks increases with increasing crosslinking density, while the dissipated energy during indentation decreases with increasing crosslinking density. The changes in hardness correlated with the changes in glass transition but not changes in the rubbery modulus, both of which can scale with a change in crosslink density. Temperature induced shape recovery of the indentations is studied using atomic force microscopy. For impressions placed at ambient temperature, the indent shape recovery profile shifts to higher temperatures as crosslink density and glass transition temperature increase. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wornyo, E; Gall, K; Yang, F; King, W
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