The development of a population of 4D pediatric XCAT phantoms for imaging research and optimization.
PURPOSE: We previously developed a set of highly detailed 4D reference pediatric extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantoms at ages of newborn, 1, 5, 10, and 15 yr with organ and tissue masses matched to ICRP Publication 89 values. In this work, we extended this reference set to a series of 64 pediatric phantoms of varying age and height and body mass percentiles representative of the public at large. The models will provide a library of pediatric phantoms for optimizing pediatric imaging protocols. METHODS: High resolution positron emission tomography-computed tomography data obtained from the Duke University database were reviewed by a practicing experienced radiologist for anatomic regularity. The CT portion of the data was then segmented with manual and semiautomatic methods to form a target model defined using nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces. A multichannel large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping algorithm was used to calculate the transform from the best age matching pediatric XCAT reference phantom to the patient target. The transform was used to complete the target, filling in the nonsegmented structures and defining models for the cardiac and respiratory motions. The complete phantoms, consisting of thousands of structures, were then manually inspected for anatomical accuracy. The mass for each major tissue was calculated and compared to linearly interpolated ICRP values for different ages. RESULTS: Sixty four new pediatric phantoms were created in this manner. Each model contains the same level of detail as the original XCAT reference phantoms and also includes parameterized models for the cardiac and respiratory motions. For the phantoms that were 10 yr old and younger, we included both sets of reproductive organs. This gave them the capability to simulate both male and female anatomy. With this, the population can be expanded to 92. Wide anatomical variation was clearly seen amongst the phantom models, both in organ shape and size, even for models of the same age and sex. The phantoms can be combined with existing simulation packages to generate realistic pediatric imaging data from different modalities. CONCLUSIONS: This work provides a large cohort of highly detailed pediatric phantoms with 4D capabilities of varying age, height, and body mass. The population of phantoms will provide a vital tool with which to optimize 3D and 4D pediatric imaging devices and techniques in terms of image quality and radiation-absorbed dose.
Segars, WP; Norris, H; Sturgeon, GM; Zhang, Y; Bond, J; Minhas, A; Tward, DJ; Ratnanather, JT; Miller, MI; Frush, D; Samei, E
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