Radiation Dosimetry for Ureteroscopy Patients: A Phantom Study Comparing the Standard and Obese Patient Models.
PURPOSE: To determine the effect of obesity on radiation exposure during simulated ureteroscopy. METHODS: A validated anthropomorphic adult male phantom with a body mass index (BMI) of approximately 24 kg/m(2), was positioned to simulate ureteroscopy. Padding with radiographic characteristics of human fat was placed around the phantom to create an obese model with BMI of 30 kg/m(2). Metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters were placed at 20 organ locations in both models to measure organ dosages. A portable C-arm was used to provide fluoroscopic x-ray radiation to simulate ureteroscopy. Organ dose rates were calculated by dividing organ dose by fluoroscopy time. Effective dose rate (EDR, mSv/sec) was calculated as the sum of organ dose rates multiplied by corresponding ICRP 103 tissue weighting factors. RESULTS: The mean EDR was significantly increased during left ureteroscopy in the obese model at 0.0092 ± 0.0004 mSv/sec compared with 0.0041 ± 0.0003 mSv/sec in the nonobese model (P < 0.01), as well as during right ureteroscopy at 0.0061 ± 0.0002 and 0.0036 ± 0.0007 mSv/sec in the obese and nonobese model, respectively (P < 0.01). EDR during left ureteroscopy was significantly greater than right ureteroscopy in the obese model (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Fluoroscopy during ureteroscopy contributes to the overall radiation dose for patients being treated for nephrolithiasis. Obese patients are at even higher risk because of increased exposure rates during fluoroscopy. Every effort should be made to minimize the amount of fluoroscopy used during ureteroscopy, especially with obese patients.
Shin, RH; Cabrera, FJ; Nguyen, G; Wang, C; Youssef, RF; Scales, CD; Ferrandino, MN; Preminger, GM; Yoshizumi, TT; Lipkin, ME
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