Effective pelvic symptom control using initial chemoradiation without colostomy in metastatic rectal cancer.
PURPOSE: To assess pelvic chemoradiotherapy (CXRT) without colostomy as a component of the multidisciplinary management of patients presenting with metastatic rectal cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Eighty patients with synchronous distant metastases from rectal cancer were treated with initial CXRT. Hypofractionated radiotherapy was administered usually with concurrent 5-FU (92%, 300 mg/m(2)/day, M-F). Three-field belly-board technique was used in 89%. Group 1 had CXRT alone (n = 55). Group 2 (n = 25) patients were selected for primary disease resection, and sometimes HAI chemotherapy (n = 10) or hepatic resection (n = 5). Subsequently, 78% received systemic chemotherapy. RESULTS: Symptoms from primary tumor resolved in 94%. Endoscopic complete clinical response rate was 36%. Two-year survival (11% vs. 46%, p < 0.0001) and symptomatic pelvic control (PC, 81% vs. 91%, p = 0.111) were higher in Group 2, but colostomy-free rate (CFR) was lower (79% vs. 51% p = 0.02). CFR was 87% in Group 1 patients managed initially without fecal diversion (n = 50). Examining all patients using multivariate analysis, pelvic pain at presentation (p < 0.00001), BED (biologic equivalent dose at 2 Gy/fraction) < 35 Gy (p = 0.077), and poor differentiation (0.079) predicted worse PC. Poor differentiation (p = 0.017) and selection for CXRT alone (p < 0.0001) predicted worse survival. There were 4 RTOG of Grade 3 or greater acute complications, 5 severe perioperative complications, and no significant late treatment-related complications. CONCLUSION: Durable PC can be safely achieved without colostomy in most patients presenting with primary rectal cancer and synchronous systemic metastases using hypofractionated pelvic chemoradiation. A BED greater than 35 Gy is recommended. Selected patients appear to benefit from resection of primary disease. Higher doses should be investigated in patients with pelvic pain.
Crane, CH; Janjan, NA; Abbruzzese, JL; Curley, S; Vauthey, J; Sawaf, HB; Dubrow, R; Allen, P; Ellis, LM; Hoff, P; Wolff, RA; Lenzi, R; Brown, TD; Lynch, P; Cleary, K; Rich, TA; Skibber, J
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