Means to the goal of remembering: developmental changes in awareness of strategy use--performance relations.
We examined awareness of the causal relation between strategy use and recall performance among preschoolers, first graders, and third graders, and the relation of this awareness to children's study behavior and recall. In session 1, children were presented with two study-recall trials; the second trial included questions concerning the child's study behavior. During Session 2, children viewed videotapes in which a model's strategy use (labeling versus no labeling) and recall level (high versus low) were varied orthogonally. Children judged whether the model tried to remember, rated how hard the model tried to remember, and described how they knew. Children who gave mentalistic explanations for their study behaviors in Session 1 recalled more than those giving nonmentalistic explanations. In Session 2, age-related differences were observed in awareness of the relation between strategy use and performance level. Further, children who demonstrated understanding of strategy use-performance relations in Session 2 were more likely to give mentalistic explanations for their own study behaviors in Session 1. The results further delineate the metamemorial development that contributes to effective strategy utilization.
Justice, EM; Baker-Ward, L; Gupta, S; Jannings, LR
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