The triggering of myocardial infarction by fine particles is enhanced when particles are enriched in secondary species.
Previous studies have reported an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) associated with acute increases in PM concentration. Recently, we reported that MI/fine particle (PM2.5) associations may be limited to transmural infarctions. In this study, we retained data on hospital discharges with a primary diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (using International Classification of Diseases ninth Revision [ICD-9] codes), for those admitted January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2006, who were ≥ 18 years of age, and were residents of New Jersey at the time of their MI. We excluded MI with a diagnosis of a previous MI and MI coded as a subendocardial infarction, leaving n = 1563 transmural infarctions available for analysis. We coupled these health data with PM2.5 species concentrations predicted by the Community Multiscale Air Quality chemical transport model, ambient PM2.5 concentrations, and used the same case-crossover methods to evaluate whether the relative odds of transmural MI associated with increased PM2.5 concentration is modified by the PM2.5 composition/mixture (i.e., mass fractions of sulfate, nitrate, elemental carbon, organic carbon, and ammonium). We found the largest relative odds estimates on the days with the highest tertile of sulfate mass fraction (OR = 1.13; 95% CI = 1.00, 1.27), nitrate mass fraction (OR = 1.18; 95% CI = 0.98, 1.35), and ammonium mass fraction (OR = 1.13; 95% CI = 1.00 1.28), and the lowest tertile of EC mass fraction (OR = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.03, 1.34). Air pollution mixtures on these days were enhanced in pollutants formed through atmospheric chemistry (i.e., secondary PM2.5) and depleted in primary pollutants (e.g., EC). When mixtures were laden with secondary PM species (sulfate, nitrate, and/or organics), we observed larger relative odds of myocardial infarction associated with increased PM2.5 concentrations. Further work is needed to confirm these findings and examine which secondary PM2.5 component(s) is/are responsible for an acute MI response.
Rich, DQ; Özkaynak, H; Crooks, J; Baxter, L; Burke, J; Ohman-Strickland, P; Thevenet-Morrison, K; Kipen, HM; Zhang, J; Kostis, JB; Lunden, M; Hodas, N; Turpin, BJ
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