Complex determinants in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope gp120 mediate CXCR4-dependent infection of macrophages.
Host cell range, or tropism, combined with coreceptor usage defines viral phenotypes as macrophage tropic using CCR5 (M-R5), T-cell-line tropic using CXCR4 (T-X4), or dually lymphocyte and macrophage tropic using CXCR4 alone or in combination with CCR5 (D-X4 or D-R5X4). Although envelope gp120 V3 is necessary and sufficient for M-R5 and T-X4 phenotypes, the clarity of V3 as a dominant phenotypic determinant diminishes in the case of dualtropic viruses. We evaluated D-X4 phenotype, pathogenesis, and emergence of D-X4 viruses in vivo and mapped genetic determinants in gp120 that mediate use of CXCR4 on macrophages ex vivo. Viral quasispecies with D-X4 phenotypes were associated significantly with advanced CD4+-T-cell attrition and commingled with M-R5 or T-X4 viruses in postmortem thymic tissue and peripheral blood. A D-X4 phenotype required complex discontinuous genetic determinants in gp120, including charged and uncharged amino acids in V3, the V5 hypervariable domain, and novel V1/V2 regions distinct from prototypic M-R5 or T-X4 viruses. The D-X4 phenotype was associated with efficient use of CXCR4 and CD4 for fusion and entry but unrelated to levels of virion-associated gp120, indicating that gp120 conformation contributes to cell-specific tropism. The D-X4 phenotype describes a complex and heterogeneous class of envelopes that accumulate multiple amino acid changes along an evolutionary continuum. Unique gp120 determinants required for the use of CXCR4 on macrophages, in contrast to cells of lymphocytic lineage, can provide targets for development of novel strategies to block emergence of X4 quasispecies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.
Ghaffari, G; Tuttle, DL; Briggs, D; Burkhardt, BR; Bhatt, D; Andiman, WA; Sleasman, JW; Goodenow, MM
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