Apolipoprotein E ε4 allele interacts with sex and cognitive status to influence all-cause and cause-specific mortality in U.S. older adults.
OBJECTIVES: To confirm associations of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4 carrier status, sex, and time-dependent cognitive status with mortality risk and to investigate these joint effects of these associations in a cohort of community-dwelling U.S. adults. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA). PARTICIPANTS: Of 3,047 BLSA participants aged 17 to 98 at first visit (60.1% male), 1,704 with complete ApoE genotype data were included, of whom 1,461 aged 50 and older with one or more visits were eligible. MEASUREMENTS: Time to death from all, cardiovascular, and noncardiovascular causes. RESULTS: Probability of survival was lower for ApoE ε4 carriers, particularly those who were older. A Cox proportional hazards model for all-cause mortality yielded a hazard ratio (HR) for ApoE ε4 carrier versus noncarriers of 1.31 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-1.68). This association was also found for cardiovascular mortality. Time-dependent all-cause dementia (HR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.33-2.26) and mild cognitive impairment (HR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.42-2.67) increased all-cause mortality risk, associations that were also detected for noncardiovascular mortality. When individuals were free of cognitive impairment, a dose-response relationship with ε4 alleles was found for all-cause mortality (HR = 1.40, 95% CI = 0.94-2.07 for 1 ε4; HR = 2.61, 95% CI = 1.12-6.07 for 2 ε4). After onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD), carrying only one ε4 allele resulted in an approximately 77% greater all-cause mortality risk than in noncarriers. ApoE ε4 carrier status increased all-cause mortality risk in men and interacted with time-dependent AD to increase the risk of this outcome (relative excess risk due to interaction = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.22-3.07). CONCLUSION: ApoE ε4 carrier status was found to increase all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risks and interacted with sex and time-dependent AD status to affect all-cause mortality.
Beydoun, MA; Beydoun, HA; Kaufman, JS; An, Y; Resnick, SM; O'Brien, R; Ferrucci, L; Zonderman, AB
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