Influence of the paraoxonase-1 Q192R genetic variant on clopidogrel responsiveness and recurrent cardiovascular events: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
BACKGROUND: A poor biological response to clopidogrel is associated with an increased risk of major cardiovascular ischemic events (MACE). Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) enzyme activity is modulated by the PON1-Q192R variant (rs662) and was recently suggested to be strongly involved in clopidogrel bioactivation, but the influence of the PON1-Q192R variant on the risk of MACE in clopidogrel-treated patients is controversial. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the PON1-Q192R variant influences clopidogrel biological responsiveness and the risk of MACE in patients treated with clopidogrel. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis of studies of the association between the PON1-Q192R polymorphism and the biological response to clopidogrel and/or the risk of MACE during clopidogrel administration. RESULTS: Seventeen studies were included. In the 12 studies of the biological response to clopidogrel (n = 5302 patients), there was no significant difference between 192QQ and 192QR + 192RR subjects, whatever the laboratory method used (global mean standardized difference = 0.10 [-0.06; 0.25], P = 0.22). Eleven studies assessed the risk of MACE, four using a case-control design (n = 2739 patients) and seven a prospective design (n = 5353 patients). Overall, MACE occurred in 19% of patients in case-control studies and in 6% of patients in prospective cohort studies, with no significant difference between 192QQ and 192QR + 192RR patients (OR = 1.28 [0.97; 1.68], P = 0.08). Similar results were obtained when study design was taken into account. Heterogeneity was mainly driven by one publication. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that the PON1-Q192R polymorphism has no major impact on the risk of MACE and does not alter the biological response to clopidogrel in clopidogrel-treated patients.
Reny, J-L; Combescure, C; Daali, Y; Fontana, P; PON1 Meta-Analysis Group,
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