Evaluation of indices of left ventricular contractility and relaxation in evolving canine experimental heart failure.
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate changes in indices of left ventricular contractility and relaxation in relation to changes in loading conditions in dogs with rapid pacing induced heart failure. METHODS: 14 conscious male mongrel dogs were paced at 250 beats.min-1 to severe heart failure, which occurred at 4.2(SD1.9) weeks. Six sham operated dogs served as controls. Right sided pressures were obtained by a thermodilution catheter. Left ventricular pressure and its derived variables were obtained by a high fidelity manometer tipped catheter. Rate corrected velocity of circumferential fibre shortening--end systolic wall stress relations were obtained by simultaneous haemodynamic and echocardiographic studies. RESULTS: In the paced dogs, baseline right atrial pressure, 6.4(2.0) mm Hg, and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, 7.1(2.5) mm Hg, increased to 13.3(3.1) mm Hg and 34.5(7.1) mm Hg respectively at severe heart failure (both p less than 0.0001). The peak first derivative of left ventricular pressure dP/dt decreased from 1515(274) mm Hg.s-1 at baseline to 975(321) mm Hg.s-1 at severe heart failure (p less than 0.05) while baseline left ventricular end diastolic pressure, 4.4(3.7) mm Hg, and relaxation time constant tau, 18.0(4.5) ms, increased to 37.2(6.6) mm Hg (p less than 0.01) and 51.9(21.4) ms (p less than 0.05) respectively. The shortening-wall stress relation was markedly displaced downward from baseline. Furthermore, weekly studies revealed a major downward displacement of this relation by one week of pacing with no significant further shift at severe heart failure, whereas both end diastolic diameter (preload) and end systolic wall stress (afterload) increased significantly further from one week. In the sham operated dogs, there was no change over time in any of these study variables. CONCLUSIONS: In pacing induced heart failure, there is impairment of left ventricular contractility and relaxation. The major downward shift of the shortening-wall stress relation at one week suggests that left ventricular contractility is impaired early and may be the initiating mechanism of heart failure in this model.
Moe, GW; Angus, C; Howard, RJ; Parker, TG; Armstrong, PW
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