Insights into the change in brain natriuretic peptide after ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI): why should it be better than baseline?
While baseline N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is useful in the prognosis of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), it is unclear whether a relationship exists between serial NT-proBNP, reperfusion success, and prognosis. We prospectively defined a NT-proBNP analysis in the WEST (Which Early ST-elevation myocardial infarction Therapy) trial that enrolled 304 acute STEMI patients. NT-proBNP (pg/mL) was measured at baseline prior to treatment (n=258) and 72 to 96 h (n=247) and 30 days (n=221) after treatment (Delta NT-proBNP=72 h value - the baseline NT-proBNP). Reperfusion success was measured by ST-segment resolution at 180 min, infarct size by peak creatine kinase (CK) during the first 24 h, and QRS score at discharge (QRSd). The primary endpoint was a 30 day clinical composite. The ability of either baseline NT-proBNP or Delta NT-proBNP to predict the primary endpoint was compared using single-variable logistic regression and the c-statistic. Median (interquartile range) NT-proBNP in pg/mL was 87 (39-316) at baseline, 864 (338-1857) at 72 h, and 585 (264-1212) at 30 days. ST resolution was inversely correlated with Delta NT-proBNP (r=-0.23, p=0.002) and 30 day NT-proBNP (30 day NT-proBNP 1016, 828, and 397 for <30%, 30%-70%, >or=70% STR, respectively, p<0.001). Infarct size was correlated with Delta NT-proBNP by CK (r=0.41, p<0.001) and QRSd (r=0.31, p<0.001); the 30 day NT-proBNP relationship was similar for CK (r=0.48, p<0.001) and QRSd (p=0.003). The baseline NT-proBNP was associated with an increased 30-day composite endpoint (Q1, 19%; Q2, 20%; Q3, 15%; Q4, 38%; p=0.03 for trend) as was Delta NT-proBNP (Q1, 16%; Q2, 18%; Q3, 19%; Q4, 37%; p=0.009 for trend). The c-statistic for baseline, 72 to 96 h, and Delta NT-proBNP was 0.59, 0.61, and 0.62 for the 30-day composite and 0.64, 0.62, and 0.62 for the 90-day composite, respectively. Delta NT-proBNP clearly predicts short-term adverse cardiac events and is superior to baseline NT-proBNP, but similar to the 72 to 96 h NT-proBNP in predicting clinical events after STEMI. This likely reflects the variability in NT-proBNP at presentation and the ability to integrate subsequent important physiologic sequelae of STEMI such as reperfusion and infarct size.
Ezekowitz, JA; Théroux, P; Welsh, R; Bata, I; Webb, J; Armstrong, PW
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