Role of newer and re-emerging older agents in the treatment of infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae.
Antimicrobial resistance has been identified by the World Health Organization as "one of the three greatest threats to human health." Gram negative bacteria in particular drive this alarming trend. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter species are of particular importance as they are associated with poor clinical outcomes and are common causes for a variety of infections including bacteremia, urinary tract infection, intra-abdominal infections and pneumonia. CRE are difficult to treat as carbapenem resistance is often accompanied by resistance to additional drug classes. For example, CRE may be extensively drug resistant or even pandrug resistant. Unfortunately, CRE infections have increased over the past 15 y while new and effective antibiotics have not kept pace. Recently, however, new agents have become available to help treat CRE infection, and several more are under development. This article reviews the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetic issues around 4 emerging agents to treat CRE - ceftazidime-avibactam, fosfomycin, tigecycline, and minocycline. In addition, an overview of agents in the antibiotic pipeline - meropenem-vaborbactam, imipenem-relebactam, plazomicin, and eravacycline is provided. More established agents, such as those in the polymyxin class and aminoglycoside class (other than the pipeline agent plazomicin), are not addressed here.
Thaden, JT; Pogue, JM; Kaye, KS
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