Characterization of 3-Dimensional PET Systems for Accurate Quantification of Myocardial Blood Flow.
Three-dimensional (3D) mode imaging is the current standard for PET/CT systems. Dynamic imaging for quantification of myocardial blood flow with short-lived tracers, such as 82Rb-chloride, requires accuracy to be maintained over a wide range of isotope activities and scanner counting rates. We proposed new performance standard measurements to characterize the dynamic range of PET systems for accurate quantitative imaging. METHODS: 82Rb or 13N-ammonia (1,100-3,000 MBq) was injected into the heart wall insert of an anthropomorphic torso phantom. A decaying isotope scan was obtained over 5 half-lives on 9 different 3D PET/CT systems and 1 3D/2-dimensional PET-only system. Dynamic images (28 × 15 s) were reconstructed using iterative algorithms with all corrections enabled. Dynamic range was defined as the maximum activity in the myocardial wall with less than 10% bias, from which corresponding dead-time, counting rates, and/or injected activity limits were established for each scanner. Scatter correction residual bias was estimated as the maximum cavity blood-to-myocardium activity ratio. Image quality was assessed via the coefficient of variation measuring nonuniformity of the left ventricular myocardium activity distribution. RESULTS: Maximum recommended injected activity/body weight, peak dead-time correction factor, counting rates, and residual scatter bias for accurate cardiac myocardial blood flow imaging were 3-14 MBq/kg, 1.5-4.0, 22-64 Mcps singles and 4-14 Mcps prompt coincidence counting rates, and 2%-10% on the investigated scanners. Nonuniformity of the myocardial activity distribution varied from 3% to 16%. CONCLUSION: Accurate dynamic imaging is possible on the 10 3D PET systems if the maximum injected MBq/kg values are respected to limit peak dead-time losses during the bolus first-pass transit.
Renaud, JM; Yip, K; Guimond, J; Trottier, M; Pibarot, P; Turcotte, E; Maguire, C; Lalonde, L; Gulenchyn, K; Farncombe, T; Wisenberg, G; Moody, J; Lee, B; Port, SC; Turkington, TG; Beanlands, RS; deKemp, RA
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