CXCR2 promotes ovarian cancer growth through dysregulated cell cycle, diminished apoptosis, and enhanced angiogenesis.
PURPOSE: Chemokine receptor CXCR2 is associated with malignancy in several cancer models; however, the mechanisms involved in CXCR2-mediated tumor growth remain elusive. Here, we investigated the role of CXCR2 in human ovarian cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: CXCR2 expression was silenced by stable small hairpin RNA in ovarian cancer cell lines T29Gro-1, T29H, and SKOV3. Western blotting, immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, flow cytometry, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and mouse assay were used to detect CXCR2, interleukin-8, Gro-1, cell cycle, apoptosis, DNA binding of NF-kappaB, and tumor growth. Immunohistochemical staining of CXCR2 was done in 240 high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma samples. RESULTS: Knockdown of CXCR2 expression by small hairpin RNA reduced tumorigenesis of ovarian cancer cells in nude mice. CXCR2 promoted cell cycle progression by modulating cell cycle regulatory proteins, including p21 (waf1/cip1), cyclin D1, CDK6, CDK4, cyclin A, and cyclin B1. CXCR2 inhibited cellular apoptosis by suppressing phosphorylated p53, Puma, and Bcl-xS; suppressing poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage; and activating Bcl-xL and Bcl-2. CXCR2 stimulated angiogenesis by increasing levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and decreasing levels of thrombospondin-1, a process likely involving mitogen-activated protein kinase, and NF-kappaB. Overexpression of CXCR2 in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas was an independent prognostic factor of poor overall survival (P < 0.001) and of early relapse (P = 0.003) in the univariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide strong evidence that CXCR2 regulates the cell cycle, apoptosis, and angiogenesis through multiple signaling pathways, including mitogen-activated protein kinase and NF-kappaB, in ovarian cancer. CXCR2 thus has potential as a therapeutic target and for use in ovarian cancer diagnosis and prognosis.
Yang, G; Rosen, DG; Liu, G; Yang, F; Guo, X; Xiao, X; Xue, F; Mercado-Uribe, I; Huang, J; Lin, S-H; Mills, GB; Liu, J
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