Long-term mutagenicity studies with chloroform and dimethylnitrosamine in female lacI transgenic B6C3F1 mice.
The weight of evidence indicates that chloroform induces cancer in the female B6C3F1 mouse liver via a nongenotoxic-cytotoxic mode of action. However, it is probable that DNA damage occurs secondary to events associated with cytolethality and regenerative cell proliferation. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential mutagenic activity of chloroform in the B6C3F1 lacI transgenic mouse liver mutagenesis assay including mutagenic events that might occur secondary to cytolethality. The positive control, dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) is a DNA-reactive mutagen and carcinogen. DMN-induced mutations were anticipated to require only a brief exposure and without further treatment were predicted to remain unchanged over time at those frequencies. Chloroform-induced mutations secondary to toxicity were anticipated to require longer exposure periods and to occur only under conditions that produced sustained cytolethality and regenerative cell proliferation. Female B6C3F1 lacI transgenic mice were treated with daily doses of 2, 4, or 8 mg/kg of DMN by gavage for 4 days and then held until analysis 10, 30, 90, and 180 days postexposure. Livers from DMN-treated mice exhibited a dose-related 2- to 5-fold increase over control mutant frequencies and remained at those levels for 10 through 180 days postexposure. Thus, following the initial induction by DMN no selective mutation amplification or loss was seen for this extended period of time. Female B6C3F1 lacI mice were exposed daily for 6 hr/day 7 days/week to 0, 10, 30, or 90 ppm chloroform by inhalation, representing nonhepatotoxic, borderline, or overtly hepatotoxic chloroform exposures. Timepoints for determination of lacI mutant frequency were 10, 30, 90, and 180 days of exposure. No increase in lacI mutant frequency in the liver was observed at any dose or timepoint with chloroform, indicating a lack of DNA reactivity. DNA alterations secondary to toxicity either did not occur or were of a type not detectable by lacI mutant frequency analysis, such as large deletions.
Butterworth, BE; Templin, MV; Constan, AA; Sprankle, CS; Wong, BA; Pluta, LJ; Everitt, JI; Recio, L
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