Normative Values of Hand Grip Strength for Elderly Singaporeans Aged 60 to 89 Years: A Cross-Sectional Study.
OBJECTIVES: What are normative values for hand grip strength (HGS) for elderly Singaporeans? Which elderly characteristics influence the normative values of HGS for elderly Singaporeans? DESIGN: Nationally representative, cross-sectional observational study. SETTING: Singapore. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 2664 community-dwelling elderly Singaporeans aged 60 to 89 years. MEASUREMENTS: HGS was measured in a standing position with elbows extended twice for each hand; a Smedley spring-type dynamometer was used. Elderly characteristics known to affect HGS, including age, sex, hand dominance, height, weight, occupation, education, and ethnicity, were also assessed. RESULTS: We present single-year age, sex-, and hand-specific graphs for normative values (5th, 20th, and 50th percentiles) of HGS. The influence of specific elderly characteristics on the normative values of HGS varies by sex, hand, and considered percentile. We present equations for considered percentiles of HGS that account for such influences. CONCLUSIONS: This study uses a large, nationally representative sample to establish normative values for HGS for elderly Singaporeans aged 60 to 89 years. These results will facilitate the interpretation of HGS measurements conducted using Smedley spring-type dynamometers in clinical and research settings in Singapore, and potentially other Asian countries.
Malhotra, R; Ang, S; Allen, JC; Tan, NC; Østbye, T; Saito, Y; Chan, A
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