Pharmacologically dosed oral glutamine reduces myocardial injury in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: a randomized pilot feasibility trial.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Glutamine (GLN) has been shown to protect against in vitro and in vivo myocardial injury. In humans, perioperative ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury during cardiac surgery is associated with higher morbidity and mortality. The objective of this safety and feasibility pilot trial was to determine if pharmacologically dosed, preoperative oral GLN attenuates myocardial injury in cardiac surgery patients. METHODS: Patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery, requiring cardiopulmonary bypass, were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind pilot trial to receive 25 g twice of oral alanyl-glutamine (GLN; n = 7) or maltodextrin (CONT; n = 7) daily for 3 days preoperatively. Serum troponin (TROP I), creatine kinase (CK-MB), and myoglobin (MG) were measured at multiple perioperative time points. Clinical outcomes were also recorded and assessed. RESULTS: GLN therapy significantly decreased TROP I levels at 24, 48, and 72 hours postoperatively (all P < .05) vs CONT. GLN also reduced CK-MB at 24 and 48 hours (P < .05, P < .001) vs CONT. MG was reduced at 24 hours vs control (P = .0397). GLN also significantly reduced pooled clinical complications vs CONT (P = .03). CONCLUSION: This pilot study showed that pharmacologically dosed oral GLN therapy prior to cardiac surgery was safe, well tolerated, and feasible. GLN therapy reduced myocardial injury and clinical complications in this small randomized, blinded feasibility trial. These data indicate that a larger trial of preoperative GLN therapy in patients undergoing cardiac surgery is needed to confirm clinical benefit.
Sufit, A; Weitzel, LB; Hamiel, C; Queensland, K; Dauber, I; Rooyackers, O; Wischmeyer, PE
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