Strength training, walking, and social activity improve sleep in nursing home and assisted living residents: randomized controlled trial.
To compare the effects of physical resistance strength training and walking (E), individualized social activity (SA), and E and SA (ESA) with a usual care control group on total nocturnal sleep time in nursing home and assisted living residents.Pretest-posttest experimental design with assignment to one of four groups for 7 weeks: E (n=55), SA (n=50), ESA (n=41), and usual care control (n=47).Ten nursing homes and three assisted living facilities.One hundred ninety-three residents were randomly assigned; 165 completed the study.The E group participated in high-intensity physical resistance strength training 3 days a week and on 2 days walked for up to 45 minutes, the SA group received social activity 1 hour daily 5 days a week, the ESA group received both E and SA, and the control group participated in usual activities provided in the homes.Total nocturnal sleep time was measured using 2 nights of polysomnography before and 2 nights of polysomnography after the intervention. Sleep efficiency (SE), non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, rapid eye movement sleep, and sleep onset latency were also analyzed.Total nocturnal sleep time was significantly greater in the ESA group than in the control group (adjusted means 364.2 minutes vs 328.9 minutes), as was SE and NREM sleep.High-intensity physical resistance strength training and walking combined with social activity significantly improved sleep in nursing home and assisted living residents. The interventions by themselves did not have significant effects on sleep in this population.
Richards, KC; Lambert, C; Beck, CK; Bliwise, DL; Evans, WJ; Kalra, GK; Kleban, MH; Lorenz, R; Rose, K; Gooneratne, NS; Sullivan, DH
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